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MGT 243 (7)

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Lehigh University
MGT 243
Douglas Mahony

overview of teams • five dysfunctions of teams 1. absence of trust 2. fear of conflict 3. lack of commitment 4. avoidance of accountability 5. inattention to results (??) • groups vs. teams o groups: three or more people o teams: groups in organizational settings with a common purpose • leadership tends to be shared among members --> leaderless teams • typology of teams team type team characteristics functional teams members come from same functional area and may or may not come from the same department/unit cross-functional members come from different functional areas and may or may not teams come from the same department/unit problem solving typically ad-hoc teams , members may come from a number of teams functional areas or departments, quickly brought together action teams typically ad-hoc, brought together to quickly solve a problem or provide service and then disband self-directed permanent teams, operate semi-autonomously teams extremely effective, peer pressure global teams can be either permanent or ad-hoc make plan, disperse, get back together & check in cultural issues virtual teams can be either permanent or ad-hoc, typically geographically dispersed the life cycle of a team • becoming a team o research has shown that teams progress through a series of 5 developmental stages o forming--> storming--> norming--> performing--> adjourning • stages of team development o forming: team members begin to learn and assess each other o storming: goals, roles, processes, and some norms for behavior are established at this stage o norming: roles are responsibilities are clarified, expectations are established o performing: teams identity and commitment is high, progress toward goals is achieved o adjourning: team goals are achieved, team disbands • teams in real life o Punctuated Equilibrium Model • some teams literally go along with one set of norms, behaviors, etc. and then realize midway through the performance stage that this process is not working • effective teams are able to quickly adjust and alter course • ineffective teams will fail to make this adjustment and ultimately fail to achieve performance objectives  more likely to blame cultural & ethnic stereotypes o group decay • research has shown that longer term teams (permanent or semi- permanent) may begin to regress once they achieve the performance stage • they may begin to  de-norm  de-storm  de-form: fragment into subgroups • possible reasons  deep seated diversity issues  fragmentation • ex. Republican party decision making within teams • moderators of team effectiveness o sources of process loss • coordination loss (production blocking) • motivational loss: may come from shared rewards, lack of individual control, lack of equity of effort • social loafing o team states: specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together • mental model: how you look at the situation • transactive memory: opposite of groupthink  distributed knowledge/information • cohesion: shared identity, leads to groupthink if there's too much • conformity • cohesion o when members of teams develop strong emotional bonds to other members of their team and to the team itself • groupthink happens in highly cohesive teams when members may try to maintain harmony by striving toward consensus on issues without ever offering, seeking, or seriously considering alternative viewpoints and perspectives o highly cohesive teams are at greater risk of falling victim to groupthink • avoid too much cohesion by appointing a devil's advocate • Asch experiments--> too little cohesion is likewise harmful through process of conformity • groupthink o tendency toward unanimity in decision making at expense of considering realistic alternatives or perspectives o happens when team members strive to try & maintain harmony or consensus o symptoms • gate keepers (mind guards): individuals who act as barriers to alternative perspectives, information…  limit discussion • foster stereotyped views • overconfidence • dissenters are suppressed/challenged diversity & team performance • many leading organizations intentionally rely on diverse teams to solve problems, especially when innovation or creative solutions are required • research has demonstrated that workforce diversity in general has been used to create competitive advantage in some firms • but, studies investigating the link between team member diversity and team performance has yielded a mixed picture • why and what can managers do to mitigate the adverse effects? • when we think about diversity in teams we are thinking about
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