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Reference Guide

Organizational Behavior - Reference Guides

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 302
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All

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l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
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EARLY HISTORY O F O R G A N I Z ATIONAL
THEORY & D E S I G N
WHAT I S O R G A N I Z AT I O N A L B E H AVIOR?
CLASSICAL ERA
EARLY THEORISTS
BEHAVIORAL ERA
Organizational behavior is the systematic study of individual and
group behavior within organizational structures
• Contributing disciplines include psychology, sociology, political science,
economics, and anthropology
• George Elton Mayo was a consultant on a series of experiments on
worker behavior at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric
Company (1924-1927)
• Experiments found that employee satisfaction was a key to higher
productivity
• Also concluded that group influences had a significant effect on
behavior and worker output
Scientific Management
• Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915) outlined a plan for increased job
specialization and mass production by scientifically selecting and
training workers
Taylor’s Four Principles of Management
• Develop a science for each element of a person’s work
• Scientifically select and train workers
• Promote enthusiastic co-operation between workers and management
• Ensure that there is a division of tasks between workers and
management
Structural Model
• Max Weber (1864-1920) was a German sociologist who published
works on the theory of bureaucracy
Weber’s Model of an Ideal Bureaucracy
• Authority is explicit and hierarchical
• Impersonality
• Formal written rules of conduct
• Achieved status
• Division of labor
• Efficiency
Administrative Model
• Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was a French management pioneer whose
theory defined five core management functions
• They included planning, organizing, commanding, co-ordinating, and
controlling
• Fayol’s principles of management include division of labor, authority,
centralization, order, equity, and discipline
CONTEMPORARY P E R S P E C T I V E S
Autocratic: Decisions are dictated in a top-down
hierarchical manner to subordinates
Democratic: Shared decision-making between
management and subordinates
LEADERSHIP
CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
PATH-GOAL THEORY
BASES OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWER
• Fred Fiedler’s basic theory is that the leader’s
effectiveness depends on a match between the
personality of the leader and the complexities of the
situation
• Fiedler developed the LPC (Least Preferred Co-worker)
questionnaire to measure whether a person is task- or
relationship-oriented
• A theory that focuses on appropriate leader behavior for
various situations
• Directive-, participative- or achievement-oriented leader
behavior may be appropriate depending on the
characteristics of the person and the situation
Legitimate power: Granted by virtue of one’s position in
an organization
Reward power: The extent to
which one person controls
rewards that are valued by
another
Coercive power: Exists when
somebody has the ability to
physically or psychologically
punish someone
Expert power: Control over
information or knowledge
Referent power: Power
through identification,
association or imitation
Adam Smith A political economist who published The Wealth of
(1723-1790) Nations (1776), in which he proposed that job
specialization and a division of labor would
increase productivity
Charles Babbage A British mathematician who advocated that job
(1791-1871) specialization be extended to mental labor
• He also proposed a division of labor
Robert Owen A Welsh entrepreneur who was one of the first
(1771-1858) industrialists to improve labor-management
relations by reforming factory working conditions
Systems theory An organizational system receives
various inputs (e.g., financial, human,
material, informational) from its
environment and transforms these
inputs into products or services
• The system receives feedback from
the environment regarding those
outputs
Contingency This model includes several other
theory variables that influence the causal
relationship between A(individual)
and B(behavior) Aand Bare
affected by the dynamics of variables
x, y, and z
Interactional Individual behavior results from
view a continuous and multidirectional
interaction between characteristics of
the person and characteristics of the
situation
Organizational
Behavior
Organizational
Behavior
© 2002-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR • 1-55080-544-4 1
TM
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Description
The systematic study of individual and group behavior within organizational structures is outlined in this coordinated Guide. Theories of leadership and individual behavior are related to the foundations of group behavior through a series of helpful charts and glossaries
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