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1. Macrophages express multiple types of receptors on their surface that stimulate phagocytosis of microbes, leading to pathogen internalization and destruction. Many of these receptors, such as Dectin-1, rely on direct recognition of a PAMP on the pathogen surface. However, some receptors that stimulate phagocytosis rely on soluble factors (not associated with the phagocyte membrane) to identify and mark the pathogen for uptake by the phagocyte. One such receptor is:

a) The class A scavenger receptor

b) The complement receptor

c) The mannose receptor

d) The macrophage C-type lectin receptor

e) The lipid receptor

2. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways lead to the activation of NFkB and of IRF family transcription factors. Each pathway has multiple steps, beginning with adapter proteins in various combinations. This process will induce inflammatory cytokine gene expression rapidly. The following are such adapter proteins EXCEPT:

a) MyD88

b) MAL

c) TRIF

d) NFkB

e)TRAM

3. Many of the inflammatory mediators produced by tissue macrophages at sites of infection act on the endothelial cells lining the blood vessel walls. An exception to this is (are) the:

a) Cytokines that induce increased vascular permeability

b) TNF produced by tissue-resident sensor cells

c) Bradykinin produced that causes pain

d) Chemokines that induce directed migration of blood monocytes

e) Cytokines that induce increased expression of adhesion molecules

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Reid Wolff
Reid WolffLv2
29 Sep 2019
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