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CHYS 2P10 Midterm: CHYS 2P10 Lecture 1 to 5 notes midterm

27 Pages

Child and Youth Studies
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Anthony Volk

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CHYS 2P10 Lecture 1-5 Notes Science of Development • Science is a method of understanding the physical (and mental) world • Different than spiritual, can’t be measured Goals of Developmental Scientists • Describe development o Normative development o Ideographic (individual) development • Explain development o Why do individuals develop differently? • Optimize development o Apply research findings to “real world” Historical Perspectives • Contrary to a lot of published and popular belief, children have generally been viewed in a very similar light over the course of history (with some exceptions) • Post-modernist relativism is just silly in this regard- kids ARE different and are treated differently • Egyptian Toys o Many ancient Egyptian toys found with children o Girls played with dolls, boys played with horse with wheels (similar to cars) Historical Examples - Medieval • It was also suggested by some scholars (e.g., Aries) that childhood was not a concept known or practiced in Medieval Europe because of the extreme death rates and labor demands • It was thought that because children died a lot, people didn’t care about children • Not true, they love children • This has since been shown to be false, childhood is a universal concept Children are born to play !Kung people • Click language • Most universally similar DNA to the whole world • Oldest people in the world • How children learn: by imitating, by trying o !Kung Boy Setting Snare o Toddler Imitating Nearby Mother By Digging For Roots Yanomamo People • Man With Bow • Yanomamo Toddler With Bow • Children aggression tendencies Why do kids like touching other people? • Monkeys Grooming • Yanomamo Boys Grooming • Girls braiding each other hair Developmental Science • Theories lead to hypotheses • Investigators should be objective when they get independent data ▪ Scientific Method is followed – Investigators must be objective – Data determine merits of theory Important Terms • A fact is typically meant to be something that is certainly true • However, this is NOT the scientific definition of a fact • Instead, a scientific fact is a phenomenon or observation that is agreed upon by most observers Explaining Science • “I think this is where non-scientists keep getting their ideas of "climate change religion" - they believe they're being asked to "trust" or "have faith" in the science as if it were a Revelation of Truth, when in fact it's plain to check and re-check and re-measure if so desired for anyone with the time, resources and intelligence to do so. • The genius of the scientific method is that there is no need for faith - you "trust" scientists only if you can't be bothered to double check their work.” Theories & Hypotheses • The common use of fact (e.g., gravity is a fact), is correctly labeled as a theory in science • A theory is an idea that attempts to account for/explain facts/observations. Thus, every so- called scientific fact is actually a theory • Predictions resulting from theories are known as hypotheses Datum • Data (plural of datum) refers to information gathered by direct observation (of either a human or some measuring instrument) • Science depends upon the collection of data to test hypotheses • Science can also re-analyze data, once recorded, it does not change Experimental Study • Experimental studies attempt to isolate the effect of one or more variables (independent variables) on another variable (dependent variable) • All other variables/influences are held constant • Thus, any change in the dependent variable must be caused by one or more of the independent variables • Experimental designs can be within-subjects or between-subjects in nature • In the former, the changes caused by the independent variable are viewed within single individuals • A between-subjects design views the changes in different groups Correlational Study • Correlational studies examine the relationship between variables • A correlational study does not control for all other variables • This means that causal inferences can’t be drawn from correlational studies • Also, the direction of causality is not known o The greatest determinant of success in school is wealth Descriptive Study • Descriptive studies gather observed data, without attempting to examine the relationships between variables • Descriptive studies are even more limited than correlational studies in that one can’t draw predictions or causal inferences from descriptive studies Study Settings • Studies can take place either in a controlled, laboratory setting, or they can take place outside of the lab in the real world (field setting) • The former is typically reserved for experimental designs, the latter are typically correlational or descriptive in nature • If you assess kids on bullying while watching them, they won’t bully each other because they don’t want to get in trouble, won’t act natural Collecting Data 1. Observational methods typically take the form of either naturalistic observation (measuring with the senses or an instrument) or testing (stimulating the animal/human to respond) 2. Self-report measures are either verbal (interview) or written (questionnaire) Uniquely Developmental Desigsn • Missing cross sectional • Missing longitudinal • Sequential design o Combination of corss-sectional and longitudinal o Participants of iddfferents ags selectated as outset o All partiicapnts obsereved repaitedly for a period of time Microgenetic design missing Data Analysis • Descriptive statistics are used to describe the data using numerical terms • Math is nothing more, or less, than the universal language of the universe • There is NOTHING in the universe that math can’t describe, it’s just a language • Translation and comprehension are problems, but not limitations Correlation Coefficient • The correlation coefficient is descriptive statistic that is used to illustrate the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables • The value of a correlation coefficient ranges between –1 to 1 • The closer the correlation is to either –1 or to 1, the stronger the relationship between the two variables Inferential Statistics • Inferential statistics are used to determine how likely a hypothesis is to be true • In any data, there is the possibility that the observed results were due to chance, and not an actual difference/observation • Inferential statistics use mathematic formulae (discussed later) to determine the statistical significance of a given scientific result Statistical Inferences • Convention dictates that any theory that is 95% likely to be true is taken as having "passed" the test of falsifiability • Scientific theories are therefore constantly being tested with new data that is then analyzed using inferential statistics to determine the likelihood that the theory is still true Reliability • Reliability refers to the agreement between different measurements of the same observation • Reliability is critical for the repeatability of experiments; if the measurements aren't reliable, one can't duplicate the results from one experiment in another (a key method of testing hypotheses) Validity • Validity refers to measuring what you want to measure. • If a study measures what it desires to measure, it has face validity • If it agrees with different measures used in other studies, it has criterion validity Ethics In Psychology • Deception, injury, confidentiality are three primary concerns with human participants • Minors can only provide assent, you must generally also obtain parental consent • Research with minors is generally held to a higher standard of ethics (school boards are brutal) • In Canada, you MUST do so, or else lose all government and university funding! CHYS 2P10 LECTURE 2 Child Development Evolutionary Developmental Science Breadth and scope of theory- “Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of Evolution” - Theodosius Dobzhansky Evolution is the ONLY unifying scientific theory in the study of life Observational methodology gives very contextual, and highly valid, data Evolutionary Perspectives What is evolution? Evolution is a theory that explains the diversity and function of all living things Evolution is a theory, but so is electricity or gravity Evolution is the most powerful, and widely accepted, theory in biology Charles Darwin Darwin was interested in explaining the wide variety of lifeforms that existed Earlier theories existed – e.g., Lamarkianism (inherit traits that change during lifespan; e.g., lifting weights will give you stronger children) Darwin came up with the theories of natural and sexual selection Five Components of Darwin’s Evolution by Natural Selection 1. More offspring are born than survive to reproduce 2. Individual vary on different traits 3. Certain traits are more likely to pass on offspring (via genes) 4. Offspring likely inherit those traits 5. Environmental conditions have changed, leading to new species The Meaning of Life We know the biological meaning of life! It is simply to pass on one’s genes to future generations Evolutionary Fallacies Survival of the fittest – fitness in biology means # offspring; evolution is really survival of those who produce the most successful lineages Group selection – evolution acts at the level of the individual, not the species Evolution progresses from simple to complex life forms Fit vs. Unfit Ultrahealthy, live to 200 years of age! This requires more resources to maintain these “fit” bodies So they only produce 2 children Poor health, live only to 50 years Requires fewer resources to maintain these “unfit” bodies So they can also produce 2 children Group vs. Individual Old zebra are 4-5 years old 5 year olds are weaker, and make the herd weaker on average “Dies for the good of the species” at 4 Produces 1 child/yr Individual turns 5 and sees lions charging If he escapes, can breed, but his presence makes herd weaker avg. Says “Screw dying!” Lives to age 5 “Higher” and “Lower” Organisms Evolution has a goal – it moves towards ever more complex forms of life Evolution is random – a mutation is as likely to retreat from greater complexity as it is to move towards it More complex forms of life are better One in four animal species are beetles! Evolutionary Psychology According to Tooby & Cosmides, E.P. 1. Involves domain-specific mechanisms 2. That are at least partly inheritable 3. That solved problems in the E.E.A. (the past evolutionary environment) Note that this allows for experience, nurture, and culture to influence the cognitive mechanisms Critiques of E.P. Doesn’t typically reveal specific cognitive mechanisms; it’s more of a guide than a manual Depends on accurate guesses based on limited information about E.E.A. Just-so stories Too simplistic – ignores human culture and other environmental factors Evolutionary Pitfalls Deterministic Fallacy - if someone is evolved, or in our genes it can’t be change WRONG! - e.g., male aggression Naturalistic Fallacy - if something is evolved, or comes from nature, it must be morally good and/or acceptable WRONG! - e.g., war Childhood is an Adaptation ~50% of children died before adulthood! Surviving childhood was thus a crucial evolutionary pressure Therefore, childhood is an adaptation in and of itself (e.g., limited attention, poor metaknowledge, curiosity, attachment, play, etc.) Genes: The Interplay of Heredity and Environment Both heredity and environment influence individuals’ characteristics When scientists first began to investigate the contributions of heredity and environment, they generally emphasized one factor or the other as the prime influence – both matter Model of Interaction Three key elements Genotype: The genetic material an individual inherits Phenotype: The observable expression of the genotype, including body characteristics and behavior Environment: Includes every aspect of the individual, and his or her surroundings, other than genes Fundamental Relations 1. Parents’ genetic contribution to the child’s genotype 2. Contributions of the child’s genotype to his or her own phenotype 3. Contribution of the child’s environment to his or her own phenotype 4. Influence of the child’s phenotype on his or her environment Fundamental Relations Relation between Parents’ and Child’s Genotypes Genetic material is passed on as chromosomes—long, threadlike molecules made up of DNA Genes are sections of chromosomes that code for a particular protein sequence and/or have a particular effect on other genes Mechanisms Contributing to Genetic Diversity Mutations: Changes in sections of DNA caused by random or environmental factors Random assortment: The shuffling of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the sperm and egg; chance determines which member of the pair goes into the new sperm and egg Crossing over: The process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to another during meiosis, increasing genetic variability Alleles About a third of human genes have two or more different forms, known as alleles The dominant allele is the form of the gene that is expressed if present The recessive allele is not expressed if a dominant allele is present A person who inherits two of the same alleles for a trait is described as homozygous A person who inherits two different alleles for a trait is described as heterozygous Mendelian Inheritance Patterns (Figure 3.3) Sex Chromosomes Determine the individual’s sex Females have two X chromosomes in the 23 pair, whereas males have an X and a Y chromosome A gene on the Y chromosome encodes the protein that triggers the formation of the testes, which subsequently produce testosterone, which in turn takes over the molding of maleness The Male Disadvantage The Y chromosome has only about a third as many genes on it as the X chromosome Because many alleles on the X chromosome do not have a corresponding allele on the Y chromosome that could suppress the action, males are more likely than females to suffer a variety of inherited disorders caused by recessive alleles on the X chromosome (e.g., color blindness) Genetic Origins of Human Diseases and Disorders • Over 5,000 human diseases and disorders are presently known to have genetic origins • Recessive gene: PKU, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis • Single dominant gene: Huntington’s disease • Sex-linked inheritance: Fragile-X syndrome, hemophilia • Errors in meiosis (resulting in a zygote with fewer or more than the normal complement of chromosomes): Down syndrome, Kleinfelter syndrome Genetic Origins of Human Diseases and Disorders In some cases, as with sickle-cell anemia, a gene can have both Deleterious effects: A debilitating blood disorder when both alleles are present Benefits: Protection against malaria, a blood parasite that can’t live and grow well in oval blood cells Sickle Cell Physiology Sickle Cell Distribution Genetic Origins of Human Diseases and Disorders Many syndromes are known to have a genetic basis, but the specific genetic mechanism has not been established Dyslexia, Tourette’s Syndrome, autism, cystic fibrosis (cholera?), ADHD, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety Polygenic Inheritance • When traits are governed by more than one gene • Applies to most traits and behaviors of interest to behavioral scientists The Case of PKU Children with phenylketonuria (PKU)— a disorder that is related to a defective gene on chromosome 12—are unable to metabolize phenylalanine With early diagnosis and a properly restricted diet, however, mental retardation resulting from PKU can be avoided Table 3.1 Average Familial IQ Correlations Regulator Genes Largely control the continuous switching on and off of genes that underlie development across the lifespan A given gene influences development and behavior only when it is turned on Regulator Genes Once thought to be relatively useless stretches of DNA, regulator genes now appear to be a major force in both evolution and development This is because there appears to be a general toolkit for building bodies- any bodies, and it’s the regulator genes that ultimately determine the final product Fig. 3.5 MAOA, Childhood Maltreatment and Antisocial Behavior (Dandelion vs. Orchid) Epigenetics Epigenetics is how genes and the environment work together to produce/develop an organism It is likely the future of developmental studies It is a reductionist approach that is extremely challenging to do in humans The Evolution and Development of the Brain The Evolution of the Human Brain Size matters Humans have a much larger brain than is expected for body size Encephalization quotient Human brains have more cortical neurons Size of the human cortex Human vs. Sheep Brain Human vs. Sheep Brain Normal Development Overall Brain Development Between Birth and 21 years old. The Evolution and Development of the Brain The Development of the Brain 1. Proliferation (neurogenesis) 2. Migration 3. Differentiation 4. Synaptogenesis 5. Cell death and synaptic pruning 6. Synaptic rearrangement Neurogenesis Fig 3.9 Age Differences in Synapse Production and Pruning in the Frontal and Visual Cortex The Evolution and Development of the Brain Neuroplasticity and the Role of Experience in Brain Development Plasticity – the ability of the brain to change Experience-expected synaptogenesis Synapses are formed and maintained by species-typical experiences Experience-dependent synaptogenesis Synapses are formed as a result of unique experiences of the individual Brain injury during development Kennard effect – younger brains tend to “heal” better Figure 3.14 • CHYS 2P10 Child Development Lecture 4 – Cognitive Development • Cognitive Development • Cognitive development is the development of thought • Generally limited to non-emotional, social, etc. dimensions of thought • Jean Piaget • Jean Piaget • His first publication was at age 10! • Offered a job in a natural history museum even before he graduated high school • Continued studying biology (mollusks) for his PhD • After, he left the field and studied psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne for 2 years • Jean Piaget • There, he met Theodore Simon, who worked on Binet’s intelligence tests (IQ) • This was at last his great interest- how children’s thought developed • Used it as a means of understanding the origins of human thought, soon changed to just understanding children’s development of thought • Ontogeny-Phylogeny • Piaget and His Family • Structures (Schemes) • Structures are unobservable mental systems that underlie intelligence • They are what change with development • Children are motivated to learn by a need to satisfy their curiosity • Discovery is the best way to learn • Children build their own representations of reality; these change with child’s (st)age Processes of Development • Adaptation to new information & mental reorganization are the driving forces behind cognitive development • Broadly evolutionary idea, but more like development and embryonic development Assimilation • Assimilation - is the incorporation of new information into existing schemas as well as the active representation of new stimuli • Accommodation - is the rearranging of previous ideas so that they incorporate the new information • Processes of Development • Equilibration - the organizations attempt to keep schemas in balance with new information • Organization – the new information must be organized in a logical fashion that builds upon, and co-exists with, current knowledge • Summary of Development • New information causes disequilibrium, motivating the child to restore equilibrium by assimilating the information, and then accommodating existing information to fit the new information leading to a new organization of thought within the child Stage Approach 1. Each stage is a structured whole in
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