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SOCI 1F90 Study Guide - Final Guide: Collective Ownership, Disengagement Theory, Symbolic Interactionism


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 1F90
Professor
Sara Cumming
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 11: Families
Nuclear family: an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring
Extended family: multiple generations of adults living with their spouses and children
Family of orientation: family into which one is born (parents)
Family of procreation: family one creates by having/adopting children
Competing Demands: Income Generation and Household Management
oFamilies depend on two kinds of labour:
oincome-generating work
ounpaid domestic labour
othe demands of these two kinds of labour are organized to be in conflict with one
another
othe state negotiates the conflicts between these two spheres partially, through schools
and health-care
Changes to negotiate demands:
1. changes in the number of hours of income-generating work required to support a
household (in the 1970s, only 44 hours of income-generating work per week to
sustain an average family of two adults and two kids in the 1990s, 65-80 hours
per week were required), a higher proportion of women working in pain labour
force and families with two income earners are now the norm in Canadian
families
2. major cutbacks in government support to schools, healthcare, and social service
agencies over the past 20 years, resulted in putting caregiving responsibilities on
families and most often women (more unpaid work is required in order for
households to survive ex. Cuts in healthcare lead to people being sent home
from the hospital while they still require care)
How to negotiate these demands:
1. increase their hours of paid labour in order to be able to purchase more services
(ex. Individual family members may work more than one paid job in order to pay
for a house-cleaning service)
2. decrease the hours engaged in paid labour in order to have more time available for
domestic labour (childcare), mothers, more likely than fathers, are the ones who
adjust their work lives to take care of home responsibilities, frequently taking on
part-time rather than full-time jobs
Domestic Labour:
Unpaid domestic labour should be calculated and valued so that women could be
compensated and have their work socially recognized
Statistics Canada valued unpaid domestic labour at $297 billion/year = 33% of the
country’s gross domestic income
Second shift: the domestic labour performed by employed women at home after
finishing their paid workdays
Gendered domestic jobs:
oWomen: indoor jobs, cooking, cleaning, bathing kids, etc.
oMen: outdoor jobs, mowing lawn, repair jobs, etc.
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Chapter 12: Education
Correspondence principle:
the principle whereby the structures of the workplaces are reflected in the structures of
schools
both use similar methods (grades and wages) to motivate behaviour through external
rewards
alienation of workers from the products they produce corresponds to the alienation of
students from the curriculum
similar authority structures with managers corresponding to teachers, principals, and
school administrators, and workers corresponding to students
Meritocracy: a society in which resources are distributed fairly on the basis of merit
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A Classic Study:
a. Ray Rist’s participant-observation study (1970)
b. After 8 days, a kindegarden teacher could divide the class into three groups
according to educational performance: fast, average, and slow learners
c. Each group sat and worked together at particular tables
d. Fast learners: sat closest to the teacher’s desk
e. Average learners: sat in the middle of the classroom
f. Slow learners: sat at the back of the room
g. Fast learners were from middle-class households
h. Average and slow learners were mostly from lower-class households
i. As the school year progressed, fast learners received the most and best
attention, began to improve, and perceived their “superiority” over other
students
j. The same arrangement happened once they moved into first grade
This tells us that:
though teachers try to treat students equally, they may treat certain students as inferior
there is an association between social class and perception of ability
The Self-Fullfilling Prophecy: Contemporary Studies:
oTeacher’s expectations of their students are moderated by students’ gender,
race, and class
oex. African American children are more likely than white children to
confirm teachers’ low expectations
oex. Aboriginal students report that teachers, administrators, and school
guidance counsellors all have lower expectations for them compared to
other students
olow expectations may lead to student disengagement and potentially to
limited opportunities for them as adults
oSymbolic-interactionalists recognize that teachers’ labelling of students
influences their success in school
Anti-Racism:
oSees race and racism as central to how we claim, occupy, and defend spaces
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oThose who engage in anti-racist work seek to identify, challenge, and change the
values, structures, and behaviours that perpetuate systematic racism and other
forms of societal oppression
oAnti-racism challenges white privilege, but also allows space for white persons to
be part of the production of anti-racist identity
oA majority of Canadian teachers are white and they need to reflect the ways they
reproduce colonialist, imperialist, and capitalist histories in their classrooms
Multiculturalism:
oAs an ideology works to promote sameness of humanity and tends to
ignore/minimize instances of inequality
oAs a political doctrine works to promote Canada as a culturally diverse space, not
just its population but socially, politically, and morally
oIt depoliticizes race and promotes tolerance of diversity
Chapter 15: Health, Aging, and Disabilities
Ableism: discrimination against those who have disabilities on the basis of preconceived
notions about their limitations
Ageism: a system of inequality based on age that privileges the young at the expense of
the old
Theoretical Approaches to Aging:
oFunctionalism:
Disengagement theory: the assertion that successful aging requires the gradual
withdrawl from society, suggesting that older people want to be released from roles that
require a lot of work and responsibility
The transition to retirement is a welcomed one, they lose the pressure of stressful roles
and also leave job openings for the younger generations
Retirement isn’t mandatory
oConflict theory:
oFocuses on the constant tension between old and young
oAs workers age, they are removed from positions of power and are replaced by
younger workers, which creates economic competition between them
oThe elderly are excluded or embraced based on the market conditions (if the market is
doing well, they want to keep elderly working longer and if it isn’t doing well, they
want the elderly to retire quickly)
Symbolic Interactionism:
One’s identity is constructed by performing many interacting roles
Activity theory: the belief that people should remain engaged and active for as long as
possible, people construct themselves through the activities they do and the roles they
play
Once retires, it is important to maintain activities and take on new ones to make them feel
valuable and important
Limited by the physical degeneration that comes with age
oFeminist theory:
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