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[COMM 222] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 85 pages long Study Guide!Premium

85 pages176 viewsWinter 2016

Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 222
Professor
Karim Boulos
Study Guide
Midterm

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Concordia
COMM 222
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Learning
-Learning: relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs due to practice or
experience
-4 primary categories of learning categories:
Practical skills: job-specific skills, knowledge, technical competence
Intra-personal skills: skills within the mind e.g. problem solving, critical thinking,
risk-taking
Interpersonal skills: interactive skills e.g. communication, teamwork, conflict
resolution
Cultural awareness: learning the social norms of organizations and understanding
company foals, business operation and company expectations and priorities
Operant Learning Theory
-B.F. Skinner — 1930s, observed that rats learned to pull lever to obtain food
-operant learning: subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain
consequences
-the behaviour is controlled by the consequences that follow it
e.g. if rats were shocked every time they pulled a lever, they would learn to avoid
pulling it
-Used to increase the probability of desired behaviours and to reduce/eliminate the
probability of undesirable behaviours
Reinforcement
-most important consequence that influences behaviour is REINFORCEMENT
“the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviour”
-positive reinforcement: the application of a stimulus that increases / maintains the
probability of some behaviour
favourable decisions is added to the situation to reinforce that behaviour
-negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that increases / maintains the
probability of behaviour
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not a punishment
negative reinforcers are usually aversive or unpleasant stimuli, negative
reinforcement would be the removal of this reinforcer
e.g. alarm clock stops blaring when you wake up
-negative reinforcer: alarm clock
-stops blaring: negative reinforcement
-waking up: behaviour
Organizational Errors in Reinforcement
1. Confusing rewards with Reinforcers
-sometimes positive reinforcers are given out despite the behaviour
-e.g. pay raise based on seniority rather than productivity
-workers observe that reinforcers are not contingent on specific behaviours
2. Neglecting Diversity in Preferences for Reinforcers
-different reinforcers are needed for different personalities
-e.g. some workers prefer getting more hours, others prefer vacation days
3. Neglecting Important Sources of Reinforcement
-some reinforcers of OB are not obvious (e.g. performance feedback and social recognition) and
get overlooked by formal reinforcers (e.g. promotions, pay raises, etc.)
-Performance Feedback: providing quantitative / qualitative information on past
performances
most effective when conveyed in a positive manner, delivered immediately
after behaviour is observed, represented visually, and specific to the behaviour
-Social Recognition: informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or
appreciation for work well done"
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