BIOL 202 Study Guide - Cri Du Chat

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22 Apr 2012
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!"#$%&"'()'*'!+&,"-.#+/"'#0&121.12+/'#0+3,".'43'5/+3$.'
View%of%a%chromosome:%
6'5+&$.'$1'4$7'58'98'+3:'+'#"3$&12"&"'$0+$'#133"#$.'$0"'.01&$'+3:'/13,'+&2;''
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How%to%visualize%chromosomes:'
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E04$"'B/11:'#"//'F3%#/"+$":G'D&12'$0"'&"2+4343,'B/11:;'<%$'$0"'E04$"'#"//.'43'
#%/$%&";'H1.$'31&2+/'2+22+/4+3'#"//'E4//':4"'"I"3$%+//J'43'#%/$%&";'
K; L$42%/+$"'$0"'#"//.'$1':4I4:"'43'I4$&1'BJ',4I43,',&1E$0'D+#$1&'FD"$+/'B1I43"'
."&%2G;'L$15'$0"2'E0"3'$0"J'+&"':4I4:43,;'L$15'$0"'24$1$4#'.543:/".'E4$0'
:&%,.'F@+?1/G8'+3:'$0"'#"//.'E4//'B"'.$%#A'43'24$1.4.;''
6; M::'hypotonic%.1/%$413'$1'"?5+3:'$0"'#"//.8'+3:'$0"3'.9%+.0'$0"'#"//.'13'0"'
./4:"8'D4?'$0"28'+3:'.$+43;''
N; O.43,'+'&+:41+#$4I"'1&'D/%1&".#"3$'B41$43'5&1B"8'13"'#+3'.""'$0"'/1#+$413'1D'
$0"'5&1B".'13'$0"'#0&121.12".;'
'
Ploidy7'the$number$of$chromosomes;'
P1&'+3'1&,+34.2'1&'+'#"//7'
euploid'7'#125/"$"'31&2+/'."$.'1D'#0&121.12".''
aneuploid7'#0&121.12"'4.'1I"&-'1&'%3:"&-&"5&"."3$":'F$&4.12JQ',"3"$4#'
42B+/+3#"G''
polyploid7'"?$&+'set'1D'#0&121.12".'F5/+3$.''638'N38'R3G'
diploid%7'$E1'."$.'1D'#0&121.12".'F0%2+38'2+22+/.8'3=K6G'
tetraploids7'D1%&'."$.'1D'#0&121.12".'
%
Rearrangements7'+3'+B31&2+/'#0&121.12"'F:"/"$4138'$&+3./1#+$4138'
:%5/4#+$413G'
'
- L12"'.5"#4".'"?4.$'43'21315/14:J'F2+/"'B"".8'E+.5.'+3:'+3$.G'
- Monosomic'='13"'/"..'#0&121.12"8'ST@'13"'/"..'."$;'!4A"'+':45/14:'-'('
#0&121.12";''
- Trisomic%='#"//'E4//'0+I"'+3'UV@WM'#0&121.12";'X3#&"+."'$0"'$1$+/'3%2B"&'
1D'#0&121.12".'BJ'(;''
- Y%2+3.'0+I"'NZ'#0&121.12".'$1'.$+&$'E4$08'.1'#+3'0+I"'NR'1&'N['F1&'N\8'N)8'
R]G;'
'
Polyploidy:%Very$common$in$plants$but$rarer$in$animals%
Autopolyploids7'2%/$45/"'#0&121.12"'."$'D&12'E4$043'13"'.5"#4".'F21.$'
$&45/14:.G'
Allopolyploids7'0+I"'#0&121.12"'."$.'D&12'$E1'1&'21&"'.5"#4".'
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Sterility%in%a%triploid:%Meiosis$pairing$in$a$triploid'
@0"J'0+I"'+3'"?$&+'#0&121.12"'$0+$'#+331$'5+4&'E4$0'$0"'1$0"&;'H"41.4.'E4//'
,"3"&+$"'$0&""'$043,.7'$&4I+/"3$'1&'B4I+/"3$'+3:'%34I+/"3$;''
M/21.$'4251..4B/"'D1&'+'$&45/14:'1&,+34.2'$1'5&1:%#"',+2"$".'E4$0'+3'"9%+/'
3%2B"&'1D'#0&121.12".;'P1&'$04.'&"+.138'TRIPLOID%PLANTS%ARE%STERILE;'
'
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Meiosis%uncertainty%in%Tetraploidy:'
@"$&+5/14:J'4.'/"..'43$"3."8'B%$'#+3'.$4//'0+I"'%34I+/"3$'+3:'$&4I+/"3$'
.",&",+$413;'Trivalent%and%Univalent%cells%will%be%sterile;''
^0+$'E4//':&4I"'$0"'24,&+$413'1D'$0"'#0&121.12".'43'$0"':+%,0$"&'#"//.'4.'$0"'
centromere_'H+A".'$0"'#0&121.12".'24,&+$";''
XD'$0"'.",&",+$413'4.'"9%+/'F/43":'+.'$E1'B4I+/"3$'1&'13"'9%+:&+I+/"3$G8'4$'E4//'
.$4//'B"'D"&$4/"'E4$0':45/14:',+2"$"._'
H1.$'$"$&+5/14:'5/+3$.'E4//',"3"&+$"'%3D"&$4/"',+2"$".8'B%$'.12"'F/4A"'$0"'
B&"+:'E0"+$'+3:'RaphanobrassicaG'+&"'D"&$4/"_'
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Allopolyploidy:%The%wonder%of%hybridization'
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P%."')'+3:')'D&12'#+BB+,"'F:45/14:'K3=(\G'$1,"$0"&'+3:'2+A"'K3=(\;'`%$'4$'E4//'B"'
.$"&4/"_'X$'E13a$'"?4$'2"41.4.'B"#+%."'4$'E13a$'.",&",+$"'$0"'#0&121.12".'5&15"&/J;'
'
L513$+3"1%.':1%B/43,'1D'$0"'#0&121.12".'FN3'='6ZG'#+%.".'+2504:45/14:J;'@0"."'
5/+3$.'^UWU'D"&$4/";'This$is$because$although$they$have$the$same$number$of$
chromosomes$and$although$they$were$close$enough$to$make$an$individual$from$the$
two$gametes,$all$the$chromosomes$from$the$radish$could$not$pair$with$the$
chromosomes$from$the$cabbage.'@0"'5+4&43,'E+.'31$'0+55"343,8'.1'$0"'#0&121.12"'
E1%/:'31$'.",&",+$"'13"'D&12'$0"'1$0"&':%&43,'2"41.4.;''
M'$"$&+5/14:'4.'21&"'1D'+':1%B/"':45/14:''$04.'#+3'2+A"'+'D"&$4/"'amphidiploid;'
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Origin%of%hexaploid%wheat%by%sequential%bybridization%of%different%species7'
^0"+$'4.'+'0"?+5/14:'5/+3$_'X$'$11A'2+3J'J"+&.':1'$04.;'MM'+3:'``',+2"$".'D&12'$E1'
:45/14:'.5"#4".'$0+$'D%.";'@0"J'3"":":'$1'B"'+':1%B/"':45/14:'FMM``G'D1&'4$'$1'B"'
D"&$4/"'F+'$"$&+5/14:'43:4I4:%+/G;'
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MM'``'bb'5/+3$;'M`b'E+.'.$"&4/"'%3$4/'$0"':%5/4#+$413'$0"'#0&121.12".'F$0&1%,0'+'
.$"&4/"'43$"&2":4+$"'M'`'C'bG;'The%wheat%we%have%now%is%hexaploid;'
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X3'#"//'#%/$%&"8'$0"'%."'1D'colchicine'+//1E.'$0"',"3"&+$413'1D'$"$&+5/14:'#"//.7'
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- @"$&+5/14:',&+5".'+&"'$E4#"'+.'B4,;''
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Generation%of%monoploid%plants7'
</+3$'B&"":"&.'0+I"',"3"&+$":'21315/14:'5/+3$.'$1'."/"#$'favorable%recessive%
mutations;'F^+3$'$1'A""5'$0"."'&"#"..4I"'2%$+$413.;G'@0"."'+&"'"+.4"&'$1'A""5'43'+'
21315/14:'5/+3$'$0+3'+':45/14:'5/+3$'FE0"&"'$0"J'0+I"'$1'B"'0121cJ,1%.'
&"#"..4I"G;'
'
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(; @+A"'+':45/14:'5/+3$'+3:'5/+$"'$0"'422+$%&"'51//"3'#"//.;'`&43,'$0"2'$1'
0+I"'+'#1/:'$&"+$2"3$'43'+'D&4:,";'
K; O3:"&'#1/:'$&"+$2"3$8'$0"'#1/:'#"//.'E"//'.$+&$',&1E43,'+.'
EMBRYOIDS;''
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5/+3$/"$;'@04.'E4//',4I"'&4."'$1'+'21315/14:'5/+3$;'
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Aneuploidy:%trisomy%in%plants:%
Datura%plant'0+.'(K':4DD"&"3$'."$'1D'#0&121.12"'F3=(KG;'M3J'1D'$0"'(K'
#0&121.12".'#+3'B"'$&4.124#;''
U+#0'1D'$0"'5/+3$.'E4$0'+3'"?$&+'#0&121.12"'0+.'+':4DD"&"3$'50"31$J5"'31$'
5&"."3$'43'$0"'5+&"3$+/'5/+3$;'@04.'"?$&+'#0&121.12"'E4//'+DD"#$',"3"'
B+/+3#";'
Gene%balance%
X3'21315/14:'+3:':45/14:'43:4I4:%+/.8'$0"',"3"'&+$41'D&12':4DD"&"3$'#0&121.12".'
F#0&121.12"'K'd#0&121.12"'6G'=('
X3'2131.124#'1&'$&4.124#'43:4I4:%+/.'$04.',"3"'&+$41'D&12':4DD"&"3$'#0&121.12".'
eF#0&121.12"'Kf'#0&121.12"'KG'd'#0&121.12"'6g'='K'F1&'];RG'
(7('&+$41;'@0"'&+$41'4.'#0+3,":'43'$&4.124#'5/+3$.;'
True$except$for$the$X@chromosome$in$mammals.$Men$have$X$and$Y,$and$females$
have$XX.$They$have$dosage$compensations$and$inactivate$the$X.$
'
C0&121.12"'&"5/4#+$413'1##%&.'E4$01%$'#"//':4I4.413='endomitosis:%
- XD'#0&121.12"'replication'1##%&&":'1I"&'+3:'1I"&'+,+43'without%cell%
division8'$04.'4.'endomitosis;''
- @0"':+%,0$"&'E4//'0+I"'N'."$.'1D'#0&121.12";''
- Sometimes$cells$in$the$human$liver$and$kidneys$are$tetraploid!$
Polytene%Chromosomes:'
- T##%&.'43'.+/4I+&J',/+3:.'1D'Drosophila$melanogaster'/+&I+"'+3:'43'1$0"&'
43."#$.'FD/4".'+3:'21.9%4$1".G;'
- L+/4I+&J'#0&121.12".'0+I"')'&1%3:.'1D'bSM'&"5/4#+$413'E4$01%$'#"//'
:4I4.413_'@04.'2+A".'+'51/J$"3"'#0&121.12".;'<1/J$"3"'#0&121.12".'.$+J.'
$1,"$0"&'+3:'#+3'.""'$04.'%3:"&'$0"'24#&1.#15";'
- MD$"&')'&1%3:.'1D'&"5/4#+$4138'4$'0+.'R(K'#0&121.12".'5"&'#"//'F:1%B/":'"+#0'
&1%3:G'+3:'$0"J'#+3'B"'.""3'%3:"&'/1E'2+,34D4#+$413;'
- @0"'#"3$&12"&".'1D'+//'#154".'1D'$0"'#0&121.12"'5+4&.'1D'b&1.1504/+'F13/J'
0+.'N'#0&121.12".G'+&"'D%.":'$1,"$0"&'+$'$0"'chromocenter;''
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Chromosome%Rearrangements:'
!1..'1D',"3"$4#'2+$"&4+/7'
b"/"$413'
H4..43,'#0&121.12"F.G'
h+43'1D',"3"$4#'2+$"&4+/7'
b%5/4#+$413'
U?$&+'C0&121.12".'
W"/1#+$413'1D',"3"$4#'2+$"&4+/7'
@&+3./1#+$413'FY+55"3.'+'/1$'43'#+3#"&'#"//.;'@04.'#0&121.12"'4.'B4,,"&_G'
X3I"&.413'
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