HIST 215 Final: Final Exam Study Guide- Textbook Notes:

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In England, like the Netherlands; religious divisions accentuated the struggle
between absolutism and constitutionalism.
There was a religious struggles between catholics and the protestants during
the thirty year war(1618-1648) in central Europe, that was echoed
throughout the English civil war.
In England, Kings James 1 and Charles I wanted the English church to be
associated with Catholicism, which would make the monarchy against
parliament. This led to a constitutional crisis and the defeat&execution of
Charles I in 1649 and the fall of the monarchy which brought the Glorius
revolution of 1688.
England and Dutch were predominately Protestant
International commerce developing
Amsterdam was the banking center and the first port of trade so the Dutch
had a golden age of it’s culture
English civil war: Conflicts
Stuart kings vs. parliament: religious conflict lead to English civil war, which
defined institutions of Britain
English civil war: Basically parliament vs. monarchy
1)Parliament: landed interests, succeed in balancing and constrainling royal
Parliament won the English civil war, so England was constitutional
This led to the Bill of rights=civil liberties of people
2)Stuart kings/Monarchy: Tried to expand it’s authority at the expense of
parliament by imposing extralegal taxes without the consent of parliament.
King James I vs. Parliament: Joined with Scotland(also king)=personal union
First Stuart king
Theory of divine right monarchy- he called the state of monarchs as gods
and parliament as nothing but confusion which started the conflict
This is the beginning of the connection of monarchy with religion to
degrade parliament
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Debt from wartimes, so hires Buckingham who advices ways to raise money
by selling titles and offices(parliament opposes)
Parliament transformed from a debating society into a institution that
defended the rights of the english people.
Debt from foreign policy=political crisis: Queen Elizabeth denied parliament
the right to discuss matters of foreign policy
Stage for conflict: Parliament refusing to provide more funds for the conflict
with Spain(James favored a treaty but parliament wanted war)
Parliament denounced monarchs attempt to arrange marriages between
James I son
Parliament objected to royal foreign policy that seemed pro-
James I defying parliament
England was previously anti-catholicism since English reformation but james
was in favor of Catholicism
Religious divisions accentuated the political crisis
Established Anglican church challenged by Puritains*dissident of Calvinists)
Puritins: each individual was predestined by God through his grace to be
saved or not to be saved
Preaching, spiritual devion
Emphasized the personal worth of the individual minister, not the
value of an ecclestiastical tital.
They opposed the role of bishops in the church of England
Wanted simler worship than the church ervices
Hostile to Catholicism
“The godly”/True church of England
Hostile to Arminianism(Charles was Arminian)
Charles: rejected Calvinist idea(puritans) and emphasized the authority of
bishops that puritans opposed
Arminians: Emphasized royal authority over the church of England(royal
William Laud worked with Charles/ Puritans thought they had a secret plan
to make Catholicism the established religion of England
“Popish plot”: Puritans feared that they would restore Catholicism as the
religion of the English state at all levels of English society.
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Catholicism: They were hostile because they associated it with the Spanish
inquisition, the saint batholomew’s day massacre in France and the duke of
Alba’s “council of blood” in the Nertherlands
Forcing loans=popular dissastisfaction
Parliament refused to consent to levies unless Charles met fiscal reform so
he convoked parliament and dissolved it when it would refuse.
Petition of right:Parliament enacts the petition of right that it forced
Charles to accept for the granting of a tax. This constrained him from
imposing loans in the future without the consent of parliament and that no
gentlemen refusing to pay would be arrested/imprisoned without just cause.
Constitutional evolution of England
Defined the rights of parliament as inalienable and made arbitrary arrest
illegal, martial law and taxes imposed without it’s consent.
Charles didn’t like it, he kept dissolving the house(1629)
A capital enemy to the state and commonwealth: anyone who sponsored
innovation of religion(Puritans fear of the popish plot) and anyone who
attempted to collect funds not approved by parliament(Charles I).
Charles ruled without parliament and tried to raise money in other ways
which caused inflation, increasing the royal debt.
Royal policies led to a rebellion in Scotland: King seized land and ordered the
imposition of the Anglican book of common prayer on the Scottish
Presbyterian church.
National Convenant(1638): Scottish sign it, attacking the pope and
prayer book to defend their religion and liberties.
Charles plans to invade Scotland and they rose up in arms
He needed funds(1639), he asked London who consented on the condition
that he allow parliament to sit for a reasonable amount of time
Resistance to royal plicies(1640) from nobles and gentry
Parliament is summoned but they refused to give him money to fight
Scotland until he considered a list of grievances.
Charles defying parliament led to a full-fledged constitutional crisis.
How England was to be governed
Parliament: existed to protect fundamental English liberties that had been
established under the Magna Cart in 1215. The king did not have the right to
dispense with it’s counsel and traditional authority In getting royal finances
or the right to impose taxes.
Led by Puritans
Traditional role of balance to royal authority
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