[POLI 360] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (24 pages long)

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29 Nov 2016
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McGill
POLI 360
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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POLI360- Lecture #4- Economic Dimensions of Security
Wednesday, September 14
Economics Power
- Economics and security are intertwined
- Security provides economic benefits
Places that are secure are where other people invest their money
Also, trade is more abundant
State has the ability to protect their resources
Markets like stability
- Big part of security lies in alliances
- Alliances are linked with trade, security
- Countries benefit from the relationships such as the EU, and countries that were
excluded were negatively affected
- United States and Canada; example of two countries that are culturally linked
If they were enemies, there would be no free trade or mass benefits towards
each others markets
- Trade follows alliances/friends; if you are enemies, trade is hard to accomplish
- European countries want to be in NATO and the EU; they want access to the common
market; tend to be a lot more access if you are in an alliance
- EU will create a military and a standing army
- Creation of army leads to more stability
- Free trade often follows security relationships
- Ex: Japan and South Korea with the U.S.- they became developmental state, states that
put a lot of emphasis on market development
- Because trading states/quasi-trading states; security relationships help a lot
- South Korea and Japan were seen as stable
- It’s what you do with your alliance, the economy, the money invested from abroad
- South Korea got out of the aid business and into trade
- Having aid is not always good; can sometimes create privileged classes in societies
- Economic power often essential for sustainable military capability
- Great powers strategies often include trade security
- Strong states vs. weak states; the ability to take care of the economic needs of its
people, able to protect human security
- Lots of wars have been fought over economic issues
- Ex: Some say Japan entered WW2 because they needed oil (U.S. had put sanctions on
it), so they decided to try and control South-East Asia
- Navies want to protect sea lanes to keep them open for travel
- All countries need sea routes; better not to make a conflict out of them
- Alternative to war are economic sanctions
- Soviets didn’t have much interaction with much of the Western world
Cold War Era
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Post-Cold War Era
- Economic Sanctions: Objectives
Techniques: Quotas; Boycott; Embargoes; Denials of Loans; Blacklisting; Denial of
export-import licenses
Conditions for success
Economic Sanctions: Efforts by economically self-sufficient states to influence
vulnerable target states’ policies
Deliberate government-inspired threat to withdraw customary aid or financial
relations
Argument as to whether sanctions actually work
Ex: In North Korea, there is a sanction, caused a big famine occurring right now
Sometimes sanctions are good for unifying people
Objective: To destabilize local government
To achieve certain goals such as human rights
To obtain compensation if the country has expropriated land
To punish a country for certain actions
Sanctions can sometimes cripple the sanctioned state
Aggregate studies have shown that sanctions for a security basis have not been
too effective
If a country is mostly self-sufficient, it wont make too much of a different, mostly
just a show of power
Little international support for the target state
Sanctions are a big topic in research
Cannot assert that sanctions are always going to produce peace; sometimes they
cause war
Sometimes sanctions kill more people than wars
Ex: Iraq under Saddam Hussein was denied medicine; thousands of people died,
probably more than the war
Some say it is a new form of carpet bombing, without dropping any bombs
- Techniques:
Tariffs
Ex: Your bananas will cost double aka a banananana
Quotas
“We will import only a certain amount of cars”
Boycott
A single product, or a whole range of exports from the country
Embargoes
When government seeks to deny another country of goods by denying
them access to that good
Denials of Loans/Credits
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