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INFORMATION PRESENTATION Exam Review

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Department
Computer Science
Course
COMPSCI 1BA3
Professor
Dr.Hurst
Semester
Fall

Description
Computer Science Exam Review IP Elements of a Page Design Page design layouts are most often depicted as gray blocks (the text) against a white background (the page) The first thing your reader sees the overall pattern and contrast of the page, then she can begin to focus on details. Repetition is key to navigation. Headings Keep it simple and your document will be much easier for your reader to understand; add too many headings, indentation levels or other elements and you will scare readers off. It will attract positive attention if it looks simple. Headings should be consistent, form a logical hierarchy, and have more space around them than normal body text. If you document must have a numbering system that adheres to military specifications, keep the numbers lighter and smaller so that the text will stand out. Subheadings Subheadings should provide a break in the text. In general, about twice as much space should appear above as appears below. Grid A grid functions as a spatial organization system that you can use to establish a standard layout. The grid is the basis for decision, like a visual procedure. The grid provides the structure for the layout, and items that cross columns (like headlines, photos, illustrations, or captions) add liveliness and visual variety. Match the format to the content. The grid you choose needs to be compatible with the information you are presenting. Keep it interesting. Grids can be implicit and explicit, buy you wouldnt want a border around every component of every grid. Margins They give final proportion to your printed product and add some needed air around the text. A margin is important because it gives the reader a place for her thumbs to rest. Margins bring a balance to the page and should have a consistent relationship with the overall outline of the page, which is not to say that the text block must be placed squarely in the middle of the pages! Runaround Adds eye relief Justification The rule generally is to set your document to ragged style if you have short lines, less than thirty-six characters. By doing so, you will avoid gulleys of white space that detract from the look of your copy. Page Numbers Page numbers are navigational aids. They are easiest to find when near the top of bottom outside corner, near the text block, the same size as the text. Manipulating Text Blocks Line Length 60-70 characters per line maximum 30 characters per line minimum 10 average length words (50 characters) of serif type or 8-9 words of sans serif type If you must use a long line length, you can solve the problem by setting smaller type with larger spaces, called leading, between lines. Line Spacing Also called leading, line spacing is the white space between lines of text, once formed by plugs of lead in letterpress printing. Normal line spacing is usually at least two points more than the body-copy size. The text you are reading now is 11-point Garamond with 14 points of leading. If your body copy is 10-point type, the spacing between paragraphs. Typing with long ascenders and descenders, the extensions that go up or down from the body of the letter, need much more leading than a more standard-looking typeface. Lowercase letters with descenders: g, j, p, q, y Lowercase letters with ascenders: b, d, f, h, k, l, t Allow more spacing between lines if the x-height is taller (the letter x has no ascender or descender, thus, x-height). Arial has a larger x-height and needs larger leading as a result. Kerning Spacing between letters in a word, called kerning Some letters are always placed close to one another to make them look right within a word. Example; capital Y or T should overhand a nearby o or a. Sentence Spacing It has become standard, to use one space. One exception: never use two spaces at the end of sentences if you right-justify text; you will see larger white spots in the gray text areas that will spoil the look of your document. Headings (Part II) A consistent approach to the titles, headlines, and subheads in your documents will aid your readers far more than gimmicks. Headings can be centered, set in a box, placed at the left side of the body text, or even set as a runaround. Lists Theyre easy to find on the page because theyre highlighted, indented or outdented, and the lines are usually short. You can use dashes, symbols, outline format, or simple indentation. The number or bullet should stand out, and all of the text on the left should line up together, as in the example shown. If the list has long phrases or sentences, a capital letter should lead off. Paragraphs Many editors consider indents a requirement. Widely indented first lines are hard to locate and, when they follow a short last line, they can spoil the look of the page. Robert Bringhurts assertion that block style is good for memos and short documents but its soulles and uninviting in longer documents. Pagination Avoid widow lines those are the lines of the paragraph on the TOP of a following page. Use at least two lines of previous paragraph at the top of the page. Copyfitting If your document will be translated into other languages, be sure to allow extra space. English is more compact than many other languages. Shorter documents Longer documents require the strictest adherence to an overall style or established set of type style setting used consistently through. Style-setting The beauty of automated style setting is its uniformity you can do less thinking about structure and more thinking about content. Styles also permit fast outline views of your creation, invaluable when creating a longer document.
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