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COMM 131 Study Guide - Final Guide: Subculture, Reference Group, Consumer Behaviour


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 131
Professor
Jacob Brower
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 6: Understanding Consumer and Business Buyer Behaviour
Consumer markets and Consumer behaviour:
Consumer market all individuals/ households that aquire goods and services for personal
consumption
What is consumer behaviour?
Must learn about why consumers are buying things
Consumers themselves do not know what influences their purchases
Characteristics affecting consumer behaviour:
Cultural:
o Culture: a set of basic values, perceptions, and wants learned from family/ others
o Subculture: group of people sharing values based on experiences
Ascribed: groups in which one is automatically included
Achieved: groups one chooses to belong to
o Social Class permanent divisions in society, share similar values/ interests
Social:
o Reference Groups two or more people interacting to accomplish goals
Membership Group
Aspiration Group: wishes to belong
Dissociative Group: wants to distance themselves from
Opinion Leaders: someone within a reference group who exerts social influence
o Family: the family is the most important consumer buying organization in society (ex
women make 85 percent of family purchases)
o Roles and status want to buy products to support your role and status
Personal:
o Age and life cycle stage: Ex someone who is just married wants a first home
o Occupation ex blue collar workers tend to buy rugged work clothes whereas white
collar workers tend to purchase business suits
o Lifestyle: Activities, interests, and opinions
o Personality and Self Concept: personality is usually defined in terms of traits such as self
confidence, aggressiveness, or sociability. Self concept is how one views themselves
Psychological:
o Motivation: a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct person to seek satisfaction (ex.
Thirsty, purchase water)
o Perception: a motivated person is ready to act, how this person acts is influenced by his
or her perception of the situation. Perceptual processes...
Selective attention the tendency for people to screen out information

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Selective distortion the tendency for people to interpret information in ways
which support what they already believe
Selective retention consumers are likely to remember good points made about
a brand they favour and forget good points about competitors
o Learning: changes in an individual’s behaviour arising from experience. Most human
behaviour is learned
o Beliefs and Attitudes: through doing and learning, people acquire beliefs and attitudes
which in turn influence buying behaviour
Other external Influencers:
Purchase task reason for decision
Social surrounding other people around
Physical surrounding decor, music, crowding
Temporal affects time of day or time available
Antecedant states mood, cash on hand
Marketing mix influence
Buyer decision process:
Need Recognition: buyer recognizes problem
Information search: An interested customer may or may not search for more information.
Consumers obtain info from any of several sources including personal sources (family, friends,
neighbours, acquaintances), commercial sources ( advertising, salespeople, dealer websites,
packaging, displays), public sources (mass media, consumer rating organizations, internet
sources), and experiential sources (handling, examining the product). Generally, the consumer
receives the most information from commercial sources.
Evaluation of Alternatives: how the consumer processes info to arrive at brand choices. Highly
motivated consumer puts in more effort.
Purchase Decision: buy the most preferred brand, although, two factors can come between
intention and the purchase decision
o Attitudes of others
o Unexpected situational factors
Post purchase behaviour: is the consumer satisfied or dissatisfied with the purchase. The answer
lies in the difference between consumers expectations and the product’s perceived
performance
o Actual > Expected = Delighted
o Actual < Expected = Dissatisfied
o Actual = Expected = Satisfied
Expectations come from personal experience and reasoning, social influence,
and marketing influences
The buyer decision process for new products:
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