SOCY 122 Study Guide - Final Guide: The Natural Order, Doxa, Talcott Parsons

30 views39 pages
Sociology Notes
Week 13
Thinking sociologically part 1
Pages 6-13
Three levels of engagement:
oContemplative- observe and speculate about the world around us
“I like this”
Classify (intellect), assess (emotions)
Language that dominants this level: nouns and adjectives
oAction- engaging with the environment around them
“I don’t like this”
Action (humanizing the world; intellect and emotions combined)
Language: verbs
oImagination- imagine different types of possibility
“This isn’t how I imagined it”
Creative thought (what is imaginatively possible; emotions using
Language: full range of language
Two aspects of the mind:
The importance of the 3 levels of engagement is; the relationship between the intellect
and the emotions, the type of knowledge required at each level and the nature of the
knowledge that the intellect and emotions generate at each level
Frye notes that the intellect and the emotions operate differently
oIntellect is the beginning of the scientific knowledge
oEmotion is the origin of the arts
Highly developed art and science can be linked close together through the convergence
and uniqueness
Sociology is a science
All sciences (natural and social) draw upon the intellect and emotions of human kind’s
creative capacity
Stems from the intellect
Emphasis on observation and classification
Grasps regularities
Progresses in accuracy and utility
Draws upon creativity of emotions and imagination
Stems from the emotions
Limitless potential
find more resources at
find more resources at
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 39 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociology Notes
Comparative standards of excellence
Employs aspects of reality and life experience with imagination
Sociology, science, and the arts:
Like science, sociology is committed to analysis and comprehension of relatively
enduring reality
Like science and the arts, language and creativity are critical to sociology’s
comprehension of complex social world
Sociology focuses on the level of “action” where intellect and emotions combine (the
humanization of the world)
Pages 13-32
Thomas Kuhns:
One of the most significant contributions to the philosophy of science is his essay “the
structure of scientific revelations”
Recognized that science progressed
Rejected “development-by-accumulation” explanation for scientific progress
He argued that there were stable periods called “normal science” where everyone used
the same frameworks to observe the world (known as disciplinary matrix)
A point of paradigm rejection- scientific revolution ensues establishing a new paradigm
Science (natural and social) progresses as conceptual frameworks (paradigms or
disciplinary matrices) are refined, rethought, re-imagined
The critical role that concepts, ideas, and language play in the scientific enterprise and
showed some insight in regards to the relation of science and the arts
Logical positivism:
Language and ideas precede observations
Language and concepts shape observations
Seek precise language of science
Seek the unity of the sciences
Like Frye, they recognize the role the language plays in the scientific enterprise
They recognize that science has elements of the arts
Michel Foucault:
Humankind creates order to its world (the intellect begins with some principles of order
to observe and classify)
An episteme is a “fundamental code of culture”
All areas of knowledge (the arts and sciences) produce/ perceive order on the basis of
the same episteme
The modern episteme is rooted in process, action, and change (the enlightenment)
Foucault: Kuhn:
Human engagement with the world is ordered by
the prevailing episteme
The modern episteme orders perception as change,
development, and progress
Human sciences emerge through the modern
“Normal science” draws upon the same paradigm
(disciplinary matrix)
No disciplinary matrix has fully dominated social
find more resources at
find more resources at
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 39 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociology Notes
Talcott Parsons:
Drawing from Weber and Durkheim
Structural functionalism and naturalism
Served as a dominant paradigm in sociology
Theoretically sophisticated
He was writing at a critical point in time
He had an almost blank canvas that he could sketch out his disciplinary matrix
Reflected the fundamental nature of the scientific enterprise
His 2 major works:
oStructure of social action
oThe social system
They addressed a full range of human action
Emphasis shifted to the social system
Over-emphasis of order, the existence of social order
oChallenging structural-functional emphasis
Over-emphasis of social integration
oChallenging over-socialization individual
Metatheory: the systematic study of sociological theory
oOne of the main metatheory this week: the nature of the object the sociologists
Sociology is a science but differs from the natural sciences in 2 key ways:
oThe “objects” of study differ fundamentally (don’t exist independently of human
action; a product of action)- every “object” or term simultaneously identifies
and is evaluative
oDue to contested nature of “objects” and terms, full theoretical agreement is
Jeffery Alexander argues that sociological theory is a discourse
Discourse: focus on process of reasoning; seeks persuasion through argument;
persuasion based on logical coherence, expansiveness of scope, interpretive insight,
value relevance, rhetorical force, beauty, texture of argument
Micro and macro levels
REVIEW OF WEEK 13 (npp 51)
Main topics for this week:
Foundational issues to human life and human knowledge
Issues of metatheory
The “Orthodox Consensus” of post-war sociology
Science, sociology, and discourse
Engaging with the world:
Frye argues that there are 3 levels
find more resources at
find more resources at
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 39 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class