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Midterm Study Sheet.docx

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Ron Babin

Midterm – Chaps 1-5/Tech guide A,B, C, E Chapter 1 Knowledge-enabled professional - A person who uses information, information systems, and information technology to create business value for organizations Knowledge work - The intellectual activity that people perform on data, information and knowledge to discover business opportunities. It involves discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, and communication Explicit knowledge - Knowledge that is already codified (Textbook) Tacit Knowledge - Knowledge gained through experience, insight and discovery/experience of others Information system - An organized collection of people, information, business processes, and information technology designed to transform inputs into outputs to achieve a goal.  Businesses use information systems to leverage human ability to achieve business goals through the timely and appropriate application of technology, and the timely delivery of appropriate and useful data, information and knowledge Information technology  The physical components, typically hardware, software and connectivity, that makes up an IS. Technology enables processes to perform the steps they were designed to accomplish. Types of IS 1. TPS (Transaction processing system) - An information system that enables transactions and captures and processes transaction data to make them available to the organization 2. MIS (Management Information system) - A software system that provides timely information to decision makers through processing and reporting. Timely reports enable managers to monitor critical processes and avoid costly mistakes 3. DSS (Decision support systems) - A software system that provides analytical and visual tools to support and enhance decision making and planning. Data warehousing, mining and reporting tools are important concepts of DSS 4. ERP (Enterprise resource planning) system- An information system that integrates and standardizes processes, and centralizes the storage and management of a business’ data with the goal of increasing operational efficiencies in business processes. Ex. order fulfillment or billing 5. CRM (Customer relationship management) system - A software system to help business connect with customers and their diverse, changing needs. CRM systems integrate data collection, transformation, storage, and analysis of customer transaction data, including purchases, service requests, and other forms of customer contact Chapter 2 Information technology consists of 3 basic categories 1. Hardware  Processing  Transistor - Primary  Microprocessor – Makes up the CPU  Memory  Ram – short term memory  Rom – long term memory  Input – Key boards, Pointing devices, scanning devices (MICR: magnetic ink character recognition)  Output – Speakers, Monitor, Printers  Controller – a device that controls the transfer of data between a computer and peripheral device (printer)  Storage – USB, Hard drive,  Communications - Network interface card (NIC), Modems 2. Software 3. Network Operating System Software: vista, osx, ubuntu; Performs 2 Main tasks: 1. Manage the software and hardware resources of a system 2. Provide a stable and consistent interface between application programs Utility Software – Provides additional IT capabilities Ex. Firewall etc. Application Software – Complete, self-contained program or set of programs for performing a specific job like Microsoft word to write a term paper Productivity Software – important group of application software for knowledge enabled professionals Like Document preparation software (Word, Creating documents), Electronic spreadsheet software (Excel, Performing Calculations), Presentation Graphics software (Power Point, Displaying work to others)  DBMS: Database management software – for designing, creating, updating, and querying data  PIM: Personal information management – for managing personal information, such as to-do lists, schedules, and electronic mail Networking - Communications media connects nodes (computers and people)  LAN (local area network) – Small Geographical Area like school labs  WAN (Wide area network) - Countries  MAN (municipal area network) - Cities  CAN (Campus area network) – covers University  GAN – Global area network – Spans the globe Network Hardware 3 Basic Categories: 1. Hardware to connect to a network 2. Specialized hardware for handling network traffic 3. Specialized computers that control the network and the delivery of data POTS – plain old telephone system Protocol – standard set of rules that allows the communication of data between nodes on a network How Networks benefit IT-literate knowledge-enabled professional  Efficient communication  Effective resource management – Easy sharing  Complete, accurate and timely information  Expanded marketing and customer service capabilities The Internet  It uses Packet switching protocols: TCP/IP – Set of communication tools  Uniform resource locator (URL) – Unique address for each page  Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) – Rules used by browsers and servers as they communicate requests  Hypertext mark-up language (HTML) - Language  Internet Service Provider (ISP) – We do not connect directly to the internet we use ISPs who are Rogers, NetZero Etc.  Wi-Fi – go on the internet anywhere Chap 3 Knowledge Work - The intellectual activity that people perform on data, information and knowledge to discover business opportunities.  Discovery – Finding of data, information, and knowledge relevant to a task, problem, issue or opportunity. Ex. Find weekly sales data for our company and for our competitors.  Analysis – Breaking down the whole into its more discrete parts so as to better understand how it works. Ex. Compare the sales data for the first week of May to similar data from our company for the previous two months.  Transformation – Use results of your analysis to deepen your understanding of the data and information. Ex. Identify any trends in the data by week, month, and day of the week. Indicate how our company's results compare with our competition and with the industry as a whole.  Synthesis – Interpret trends or patterns that seem to explain the past and the present, and may suggest courses of action likely to favourably influence the future. Ex. Given your analysis of the company's relative success or failure, suggest ways to capitalize on strengths and overcome weaknesses.  Communication - Present your findings and suggestions to management. Making decisions:  Rational decision – decision made after analyzing consequences  Structured decision – a decision that is programmed; Routine and repetitive; Ex. Prerequisite Courses  Semi-structured decision – involves some uncertainty or doubt about the outcome of it. Ex. Electives  Unstructured decision – involves a significant amount of uncertainty about the outcome associated with a choice Information Criteria – Things needed for information to be valid  Complete  Accurate  Reliable  Timely Problem Solving: IADD - Formal expression of the problem solving process , The model consists of 4 major steps:  Investigate – Determine if there is a problem or an opportunity, and it is possible to solve the problem or take advantage of the opportunity  Analyze – Gather data that are relevant to the heart of the problem, or that pertain to the benefits, challenges, and risks associated with a given opportunity  Decide – Evaluate solutions and make choices regarding how to implement the solution (Criteria is applied to evaluvate alternatives)  Do – Implement the solution and monitor the results (Action Grid Chap 4  Open System Model –This model shows how a business operates by transforming inputs into outputs and by constantly interacting with its environment Business Process – a series of steps of turning input into output Organizational boundary - The separation between a business system and its environment. Business systems must keep an open boundary to their environment to allow for receiving inputs and to produce outputs. Stakeholder – someone how has vested interest in a company Organizational structures – The setup of an organization  Functional - A business organized according to functional areas instead of product lines. Functionally organized businesses can be economically efficient, but can lack flexibility, and it may be difficult to communicate between functional areas.  Decentralized (by product line or geography) - Decision-making authority is pushed down the organization structure and shared with
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