ITM Exam Review.docx

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Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Vikraman Baskaran

ITM Exam Review Chapter One Information Systems in Global Business Today Digital Firm- A digital firm is one in which nearly all of the organizations significant business relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled and mediated. Business Processes- Are accomplished through digital networks spanning the entire organization or linking multiple organizations. Also the unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, information, and knowledge to produce a product or service. Key Corporate Assets- intellectual property, core competencies, and financial and human assets. Time Shifting- refers to business being conducted continuously 24/7, rather than in narrow work day time bands. Space Shifting- means that work takes place in a global workshop, as well as witching national boundaries. Business Model- describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth. Information Technology- consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives. Information System- can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. Information- Data that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to humans. Input- captures or collects raw data rom within the organization or from its external environment. Processing- converts this raw input into a meaningful form Output- transfers the processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities that it will be used. Feedback- output that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input and processing stages. Information Systems Literacy- broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about computers. Computer Literacy- focuses primarily on knowledge of information technology. Senior Management- makes long-range strategic decisions about products and services and ensures the financial performance of the firm. Middle Management- carries out the programs and plans of senior management. Operational Management- is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business. Knowledge Workers- engineers, scientists, or architects, design products or series and create new knowledge for the firm Data Workers- Secretaries or clerks, assist with paperwork at all levels of the firm Production or Service Workers- actually produce the product and deliver the service Major Business Functions- or specialized tasks performed by business organizations consist of 1) sales and marketing 2) manufacturing the product 3) finance and accounting 4) human resources. Culture- the set of fundamental assumptions about what products the organization should produce, how and where it should be produce them, and for whom they should be produced. Computer Hardware- is the physical equipment used for input, processing and output activities in an information system. Consists of computer of various sizes and shapes, various input, output and storage devices, and telecommunications devices that link computers together. Computer Software- consists of the detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system. Data Management Technology- consists of the software governing the organization of data on physical storage media. Networking and Telecommunications Technology- consists of both physical devices and software, link the various pieces of hardware and transfers data form one physical location to another. Network- links two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer. Internet- is a global network of networks that uses universal standards to connect millions of different networks with more than 1.4 billion users in more than 230 countries across the world. Intranet- An internal network based on Internet and World Wide Web standards. Extranet- A private intranet that is accessible only to authorized users. World Wide Web- is a service provided by the Internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format on the Internet. Information Technology Infrastructure- computer hardware, software, data, storage technology, and networks providing a portfolio of shared IT resources for the organization. Complementary Assets- are those assets required to derive value from a primary investment. Organization and Management Capital- investments in organization and management such as new business processes, management behvaiour, organizational culture, or training. Assets- Organization assets, managerial assets, and social assets. Sociotechnical View- seeing systems as composed of both technical and social elements. Helps avoid a purely technological approach to information systems. Chapter Two: How Businesses Use Information Systems Functional Business Process- manufacturing and production (assembling the product, checking for quality, and producing bills of materials), sales and marketing (identifying customers, making customers aware of the product, selling the product), finance and accounting (paying creditors, creating financial statements, managing cash accounts), human resources (hiring employees, evaluating employees, enrolling in benefit plans) Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)- computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business such as sales order entry, hotel reservations, payroll, employee record keeping, and shipping; they serve the organizations operational level. Management Information Systems (MIS)- 1) the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management. 2) a specific category of it systems serving middle management, provides middle managers with reports on the organizations current performance to monitor and control the business and predict future performance. Decision Support System (DSS)- support non routine decision making for middle management, they focus on problems that are unique and rapidly changing for which the procedure for arriving at a solution may not be fully predefined in advance. Executive Support System (ESS)- help senior management make these decisions, address non routine (unstructured) decisions requiring judgment, evaluation, and insight because there is no agreed-on procedure for arriving at a solution, presented through graphics and communication capabilities. Portal- web interface for presenting integrated personalized content from a variety of sources, also refers to a web site service that provides an initial point of entry to the web. Digital Dashboards- displays all of a firms key performance indicators as graphs and charts on a single screen to provide one-page overview of all the critical measurements necessary to make key executive decisions. Enterprise Applications- systems that span functional areas, focus on executing business processes across the business firm, and include all levels of management, help business become more flexible and productive by coordinating their business process more closely and integrating groups of processes so they focus on efficient management of resources and customer service. Knowledge Management Systems- enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing and applying knowledge and expertise, collect all relevant knowledge and experience in the firm and make it available wherever and whenever it is needed to improve business processes and management decisions; support processes for acquiring, storing, distributing, and applying knowledge, as well as processes for creating new knowledge and integrating it into the organization. Electronic Business- the use of the Internet and digital technology to execute all the business processes in the enterprise, includes e-commerce as well as the processes for the internal management of the firm and for coordination with suppliers and other business partners. Electronic Commerce- the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the internet, networks, and other digital technologies. Electronic Government- use of the Internet and related technologies to digitally enable government and public sector agencies relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. Information Systems Department- is the formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services; responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that compete in the firms IT infrastructure. Programmers- are highly trained technical specialists who write the software instructions for computers. Systems Analysts- constitute the principal liaisons between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization; it is their job to translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems Information Systems Managers- are leaders of teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility mangers, telecommunications managers, or database specialists; also managers of computer operations and data entry staff. Chief Information Officer (CIO)- is a senior manager who oversees the use if information technology in the firm. Chief Security Officer- is in charge of information systems security for the firm and is responsible for enforcing the firms information security policy; responsible for educating and training users and information systems specialists about security, keeping management aware of security threats and breakdowns, and maintaining the tools and policies
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