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Chapter 8 Questionnaire Design.docx

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Ryerson University
MKT 500
Tina West

MKT500 Marketing Research CHAPTER 8 Questionnaire Design WHAT IS A QUESTIONNAIRE AND WHAT STEPS ARE TAKEN TO DEVELOP IT?  Questionnaire: used to pose the questions that the researcher wants respondents to answer o Translates research objectives into specific questions that are asked of the respondent o Standardizes those questions and the response categories so that every participant responds to identical stimuli  Questionnaire design: systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various question formats, considers a number of factors characterizing the survey at hand, composes the various questions carefully, and organizes the questionnaire’s layout  Question bias: ability of a questions’ wording or format to influence respondents’ answers DEVELOPING QUESTIONS  Question development: practice of selecting appropriate response formats for each question and wording questions so that they are understandable, unambiguous, and unbiased o Measures attitudes, beliefs, behaviours and demographics, and they desire reliable and valid answers to their questions  Ambiguous words that should be avoided are usually, normally, frequently, often, regularly, and occasionally o While words are used in everyday language, they can introduce an element of bias into a questionnaire because respondents are using a literal interpretation in their efforts to answer the questions  Designing a “universal” language questionnaire is unsatisfactory because there are many opportunities for miscommunication o Use the following approach when attempting to do across-the-globe research:  Create questionnaire in researcher’s native language  Translate questionnaire into other language  Have independent translators translate it back into the native lanuage to check if first translation was accurate  Revise questionnaire based on the “back translation”  Make sure words and characteristics are accurate for local lanuage  Carefully pretest revised questionnaire using individuals whose native tongueis the other lanuage FOUR “DO’S” OF QUESTION WORDING  Question evaluation: consists of scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure that question bias is minimized and the wording is such that respondents understand the question and can respond to it with relative ease  Four simple guidelines or “do’s” for question wording: 1. Question should be focused on a single issue or topic 2. Question should be brief 3. Question should be grammatically simple sentence if possible 4. Question should be crystal clear FOUR “DO NOTS” OF QUESTION WORDING  Four situations in which question bias is assured 1. Leading question: worded or structured in such a way as to give the respondent a strong cue or expectation as to the answer  Leading questions are biased in that they direct the respondent to answer in a predetermined way 2. Loaded questions: buried in their wording subtle references to universal beliefs or ruless of behaviour  Phrasing of each question should be examined throughly to guad against the various sources of question bias error 3. Double-barrelled question: really two different questions posed in one question  With two questions posed together, it is difficult for a respondent to answer either one directly 4. Overstated question: places undue emphasis on some aspect of the topic  Avoid using words that overstate conditions; better to present the question in a neutral tone rather than in a strong positive or negative tone QUESTIONNAIRE ORGANIZATION  Questionnaire organization: sequence of statements and questions that make a questionnair
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