BPK 110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cardiac Arrhythmia, Cramp, Phytic Acid

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LECTURE 8 – WATER AND MINERALS
*FOR EXAM KNOW 2 FUNCTIONS, 1 SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENTY, 1 SYMPTOMS OF TOXICITY,
AND 2 SOURCES FOR FOLLOWING MINERALS
- Sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, and fluoride
Water Distribution
- 60% body weight = water
o2/3rd water extracellular, 1/3rd water intracellular
oWater distribution depends on solutes (concentration of dissolved substances
like sodium, protein, potassium)
Imbalanced solute concentration > osmosis (water diffusion) > direction
that equalizes solutes
Water = slightly +ve and slightly –ve pole
Water moved by blood pressure (forces water from capillary > space b/w
cells/surround tissues)
Water, Blood Volume, and Blood Pressure
- Factors that control blood pressure:
oKidney: regulate water loss in urine (controls blood pressure)
oVasoconstriction: signaled by brain for vessels to constrict to increase blood
pressure
oThirst
- Factors that control blood pressure CONTROLED BY hormones:
oAntidiuretic hormone (ADH): released by brain (pituitary gland)
Signals thirst
Signals kidney to retain water
Signals vasoconstriction
oAngiotensin II:
Stimulates release of aldosterone
oAldosterone:
Signals kidneys to retain sodium
Water Functions
- Solvent
oDissolves nutrients/vits/minerals for body to use
- Metabolism
- Transporter
oMakes up blood > delivers O2 and nutrients > delivers waste to lungs/kidneys
- Protection
oLubricates cells; cleans thru tears
- Body temp regulator
oSweat
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Water Dehydration
- Water deficient = electrolytes deficient
oReduced blood volume, can’t deliver nutrients, harder waste removal
oEarly symptoms: thirst, dark urine, headaches
oLate symptoms: confusion, disorientation, collapse (ex. Dr. Bedoya at the party!)
Water Intoxication
-Hyponatremia: too much water, not enough sodium in body
oConfusion, disorientation, nausea
Meeting Water Needs
- Need more water when:
oHigh fibre/protein/salt diet
oLow calorie diet
oLots of phy. Activity
oDrink caffeine/alcohol (diuretics, which inhibit ADH)
Minerals
- Inorganic
- Present naturally in foods OR from soil/food processing
- Major minerals:
oSodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
oAll electrolytes
- Trace (not needed as much) minerals:
oIron, zinc, iodine, fluoride
Mineral Bioavailability
- Easily absorbed in animals, not plants
- Depends on:
oSource, what else eaten at same time, preparation, individual
Oxalates, Tannins, Phytates
- Oxalates: prevent iron/Ca absorption
oFound in chocolates, beets, spinach
- Tannins: prevent iron absorption
oFound in tea, red wine
- Phytates: prevent iron/zinc/Ca/magnesium absorption
oFound in soy, bran, whole grain
oBUT yeast breaks down phytates SO yeasty products = good absorption of
^minerals
Electrolytes (Sodium [+], Potassium [+], Chloride [-])
- Responsible for electrical activity in body, fluid balance
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