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KIN 110 Midterm 2 Review.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Ryan Dill

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KIN 110 Midterm 2 ReviewChapter 7Energy Fuel for WorkChemical Energy energy contained in bonds between atoms of a molecule o Where cells get their energy fromPhotosynthesis Process by which green plants use sun energy to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and waterMetabolism all chemical reactions within organisms that enable them to maintain lifeTransferring Food Energy to Cellular Energy o Transfer energy from food to a form our cells can useNot completely efficientabout half total energy lost as heat o Stage 1 Digestion absorption transportationDigestion breaks food down into small subunits easily absorbed by small intestine circulatory system transports these subunits to body tissues o Stage 2 Breakdown of many small molecules to a few key metabolitesMetabolites any substances produced during metabolismMade from chemical reactions converting simple sugars o Stage 3 Transfer of energy into a form cells can useComplete breakdown of metabolites yields large amounts of energyWhat is Metabolism o Metabolic Pathway A series of chemical reactions leading toCatabolism cells break down complex substances into smaller onesAnabolism cells convert simple substances into more complex ones o Metabolic pathways never completely inactiveThe Cell is the Metabolic Processing Centre o Cells work centres of metabolism o Basic cells have two major parts nucleus and cytoplasm o Cytosol fills cytoplasm and organelles float around in cytosolMitochondria power generators of the cell o Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in metabolic pathwaysMany inactive until combined with cofactorscoenzymes Who are the Key Energy PlayersATP Bodys Energy Currency o Adenosine Triphosphate energy molecule used to power cellular functions o NADH NADPH FADH2 coenzymes that act as electron carriers o Breaking bonds between phosphate groups in ATP creates a tremendous amount of energyConverted into ADPP and then AMPP o Reaction can proceed in either direction o Bodys pool is a small reserve immediately accessible not longterm o Guanosine Triphosphate functionally and structurally similar to ATP important to visionNADH and FADH2 The Bodys Energy Shuttles o Electrons released when metabolic reactions break down nutrients o NAD and FAD accept electrons to shuttle them to sites of ATP productionNADPH Energy Shuttle of Biosynthesis o Structurally similar to NADH but functions to carry electrons to drive biosynthesis not ATP production Breakdown and Release of EnergyExtracting Energy from Carbohydrates o GlycolysisAnaerobicdoes not require oxygenOccurs in cytosolBreaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate and yields two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH o Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoAAerobic reactionTransfer electrons to form NADHIrreversibleWhen limited oxygen available pyruvate formed into lactate o Citric Acid CycleAcetylCoA combines with oxaloacetate which frees CoAAcetyl oxidized to form two molecules of carbon dioxide and one molecule each of NADH FADH2 GTPImportant source of building blocks for biosynthesis of amino and fatty acids o Electron Transport ChainLocated in inner mitochondrial membraneNADH and FADH2 deliver electrons which give up energy in the chain to form ATPAt the end of the chain oxygen accepts energy depleted electrons and reacts with hydrogen to form water o End Products of Glucose CatabolismCarbon Dioxide water ATPExtracting Energy From Fat o Carnitine ShuttleCarnitine compound that transports fatty acids into mitochondria o BetaOxidation
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