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What is Criminology.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 101
Jay Healey

What is Criminology Crim 101 -Violent Crimes are mainly discrete/short-term events that quickly Defining and Constructing the problems of Crime happen (ex. Murders, thefts, and sexual assaults) (Psychology/Geography/Sociology/Anthropology/Chemistry) - Draws from →they are easily understood → require little background information other disciplines - Sociology is the most important base of criminology →limitless supply = stories can be expanded or reduced depending on -Criminology is more field of study than distinct discipline news-decision makers and amount of time in day -Criminologist attempted to understand factors associated with crime -News organizations rely heavily on continuous flow of crime news = 1. Motivation of offenders -Lalumiere have good relationship with suppliers of crime news : police 2. Circumstances leading up to offence (presence of weapon) →journalists refer to police as "official spokesperson" of crime = police -How we should respond to crime - ex. acts of violence (homicide offenders) think they're experts and owners of crime problems -journalists adopt a -Criminologists monitor changes in the law and how it affects people's "police perspective" behaviours + how social agents respond to these behaviours ----------------- -------------------------- Crime Media Crime News -Crime Drama is mostly violent (offenders are rich when in reality they're -Why is there so much interest in crime Media? - Crime sells - viewers poor and association with specific ethnic group is downplayed) perceive crime news as "important facts" , dramatic or vivid + shocking General Characteristics of crime media →Katz quotes that public doesn't care about the truth/research but more with 1. Atypical - focuses on the rare/unusual (ex. homicides, school dramatic qualities massacres) →crime news helps audience to work out their own positions on moral 2. Simplicity - brief, to the point , makes complexity simple for mass questions of general + personal nature production + heavy on visual presentation + emotion is emphasized Content -Organized Crime - social activity which is bound up to particular kinds of -there is little relationship between the amount of "crime news" and cultural and economic realities - media portrays organized crime with amount of "crime" - trends of crime does not correspond with trend of crime stereotypes and simple minded ideals news 3. Personification - makes crimes/criminals non human (serial killers + -amount of attention the media gives to a crime depends on the type of Osama Bin Laden) -9/11 -relationship between Bush and Bin Laden offence/severity (violent crimes like homicide → more frequent = "wanted dead or alive" skewed public understanding with the frequency of crimes happening 4. Status Quo Orientation - applies to everyone + reinforce minorities as -crime news exaggerates the proportion of offences that result in arrestscriminals →Criminal events we believed have happened - "kidney thieves" = portrays police as "more effective" than they really are -crime news disproportionately focuses on the crimes of the poor and -Crime news focuses on the early stages of criminal justice processing powerless and less on the rich/powerful and less on legal processing →research states people received their reactions to crime from →Broad social conditions - poverty and social disorganization → most family, friends and neighbours always assumed as bad + make decisions to offend → high levels of fear of crime have higher levels of contact with -doesn't take into account factors influencing decisions (biological or their family members psychological -Improvised News - rumours → expressed anxieties and Sources of Crime News uncertainties about social life (Halloween Sadist : increase concern -What is news worth? - how journalists share news reflects their perception over vulnerability of children to child abuse/threats posed by on society, the work they're involved in, and the audience they serve anonymous strangers/increasing mistrust outside one's group -Urban Legends - by folklorists → captivating and plausible, fictional andJuvenile Gang Fallacy - youth gangs as prominent, structured, and oral narratives which are told as "true stories" (Brunvand) organized -Crime Myths - distorted or misleading pieces of information accepte Wdelfare State Fallacy - exaggeration of connection between poverty, as a fact equality, and crime (most crimes are violent/serial killers account for a substantial number of 9. The Agenda Fallacy - use of political or social agendas to identify murderers per year/violent crimes higher than ever in recorded history/most the causes or prevention of crime violent crimes are random) 10. The Whatever-You-Think Fallacy - portrayal of crime as impossible →3 assumptions about violent crimes to identify 1. violence is "random/patternless" - incorrect - that society face equal ---------------- risks of becoming crime victims (risks depends on -Criminology is built on 3 foundations age/lifestyle/gender/social class) 1. Theory - attempt to explain relationships + predictions (ex. routine →young, socially disadvantaged males are far more likely to be murdered activities theory) - relationships between categories and phenomena 2. Random violence is "pointless" 2. Research - studies criminologists conduct to test theories → conduct 3.Random violence is becoming more common - assumed to be on the theories in the "real world" to test theories and generate new ones rise even though it's decreasing 3. Concepts - general terms used to classify persons or events ------------------ (characteristics) Crime Myths --------------- 1. Organize our views - neat framework that organizes our views on crime Lawbreaking and CJS that clearly identifies criminals/victims Crime :behaviour that breaks the law and is liable to public prosecution and 2. Support and Maintain established views about crime punishment → law can be seen as a form of social control that 3. Help to fill the gaps in our knowledge that social science has not evaluates moral nature of the behaviour yet/cannot fill - explanations as why people commit crimes - Major function of law : deter people from engaging in behaviour that 4. Provide an emotional outlet and create channels for emotions to turn it prohibits (only laws defined by "federal" law are technically crimes) to actions (cathartic) (Mens rea without Actus Rea is not a crime) -------------- -to be criminal in a "legal" sense , an act must be intentional (mens rea) 10 Crime Fallacies + must be committed in the absence of a legally recognized defence 1. Dramatic Fallacy - strange/violent crimes believed as typical and a (ex. If assault is accidental) commonplace ------------- 2. Cops and Courts Fallacy - exaggerated role of the CJS in preventing Individual Accountability crimes -all criminal law derives from a model of behaviour that is based on 3. The Not-Me Fallacy - portrayal of offenders as fundamentally different individual psychology from us →prosecutors try to find an intent/motive of the suspect 4. The Innocent Youth Fallacy - offender are adults and youth are -cases where individuals who commit crimes that they cannot prevent are innocent -offenders are mostly middle aged covered by a "judgement of competence" - may be restricted due to age, 5. Ingenuity Fallacy - offender are highly intelligent and skilled duress, self-defence, insanity 6. The Organized Crime Fallacy - crime syndicates as sophisticated, ------------ organized, and hierarchical Legal and Social Controls -Legal responses are heavily influenced by circumstances/p→ ublicn be formal (ex. CJS) or Informal (Family, Peer groups, School, tolerance/ judicial discretion Church etc.) -Gossip, Ridicule, and Ostracism are forms of "social" contr-o --l----------- Classification of Crime Feminist Criminology 1. Mala In Se - acts that would still be seen as wrong even if they Feminist Theory - Critically assess the power and balance between males weren't illegal (ex. Homicide) and females 2. Mala Prohibita - acts are only wrong because the law prohibits (ex. -Commonalities Drug Use) -Gender is a product of culture - not innate -Mala in se/Mala Prohibita distinction forces the recognition that laws -women should be at the center of intellectual inquiry and not periphery might differ with respect to moral force they can exert →most occupations in the criminal justice area are dominated by men -------------- 1. Generalizability Problem -Criminal laws arise from: -can theories that were developed to explain male crime also explain 1. social consensus about morality and the need to respond to female crime? - some think not because women are less rowdy and particular types of events in particular ways their experiences are ignored 2. reactions to crimes have more to do with power/conflict/inequality 2. Sex-Ratio Problem than with social consensus -why women are less likely to commit crimes compared to men Legal Model - Sub Conceptualization Categories of Feminist Thought -Consensus Theory - law represents the collective interests of society 1. Crime and Opportunity: "liberal feminists" emphasize ways that (everyone agrees) and that social change has to be agreed on by society social structures can be changed so that women can have more 1. Mechanical Solidarity - (more traditional) - social environment based on opportunities (liberal feminism doesn't call the social structure into shared common ideas amongst people (beliefs, values + whatever question) connects people) "collective conscience" → laws emerge which -as women started obtaining roles/jobs of men, they learned the skills reflect common morality + punishments are agreed on by everyone of/like men (sex-role convergence) = possibly bring convergence of 2. Organic Solidarity - how people work with each other, not so much crime rates having common ideals but their need for each other →opportunity - criminal conduct depends on # of criminal →role of law is not to punish but to rehabilitate and reintegrate opportunities and since women didn't have a lot of opportunities to be (restitution) criminal • Conflict Theory - (Marxist) - law represents the interests of a 2. Class and Crime : gender analysis + Marxist analysis - Marxian feminist powerful group in society→ powerful groups use their power to believe that women/men both have a class/gender and experience exploit the lesser groups → people act the way they do to further them simultaneously their interest and at the expense of other people -women of different classes + races receive different treatments -Ex. Owners + Employees = Owners want profits while Employees want (poor/coloured women receive worse treatment by systems of formal social higher wages = Owners keeping wages low to save money control) 3. Crime and Patriarchy : radical feminism (concerned with the study of Crime is a normative violation →Norms - rules that govern social activities and define social roles - patriarchy) → forms of social organization where men dominate women appropriate standards and conduct -can be formal (written) or informal →patterns of domination are reproduced through socialization/creation of core gender identities where women/men accept the superiority of men (taboos) Normative violations a.k.a Social Control KEY COMPONENT : THREAT OF VIOLENCE - women find that their economic/social opportunities are restricted because of sexual and violent threats ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----- Lecture week 2 - the Criminal Event Precursors: situational factors that bring people together in time and space Transactions: interactions between individuals that have led to the outcome of a crime being committed •cases that involve victims resisting victimization = affect the course of action •crimes often involve "third party" - bystanders + witnesses -Peter Carrington used population data to forecast how crime rates my •bystanders + witnesses can call for help to intervene change in the future - suggested that crimes committed by teens would •criminal events involve the public = public perception of show sharpest decline increased crime rates = pressure on police to be more tough GENDER -criminal events are more likely to happen in specific places with -data collected from CJS support conclusions that men are more specific people = opposed to stereotype that crime happens randomly engaged in offending behaviour than women Systematic Accidents: crimes that happen randomly "wrong place at wrong →data stated that women made up only 21% of accused persons time" -06/07/08 - of all adult cases , 78% were men and 16% involved a female ------------ -in youth court, men accounted for 78% of cases Offender Characteristics 3 OBSERVATIONS ABOUT GENDER -research suggest that particular social characteristics are associated 1. the biggest difference in men/women are cases of crimes of violence with a higher likelihood of offender involvement in criminal events -males are accused of 9/10 homicides committed in Canada (most offences: offenders tend to be young, disadvantaged males) 2. teenage and young adult years are period of high crime risk for -------------------- both male and female -Property crime offences peak at age 16 + drop by half by age 20 3. offending rates of males continues to be higher than those of females -violent crimes peak at age 18 and 24 in almost every category of crime -1/3 of people accused of a crime were ages 12-17 -most increase in female offences is in property crime -research suggest that rates of crime are linked to social indicators (ex. level of inflation)/unemployment rates/ level of inequality) MINORITY GROUP Ex. African Americans in U.S and Aboriginals in Canada →07/08 - Aboriginal adults accounted for 17% of adults in custody/ 18% in provincial custody/16% on probation/19% on conditional sentence ------------------- Offender Perceptions 2 types of accounts that offenders give 1. Excuse : denial of responsibility for an acknowledged wrongful act 2. Justification : accepting responsibility for the act while dvihtims may not know or understand that they are being victimized immorality of the act (CULTURAL : ex HONOUR KILLINGS) (someone who got mugged probably thought that that was their neighbour -offenders may say that they were under the influence of drug pslyirng a joke) alcohol →willingness to label a crime depends on the victim's knowledge of what is -CJ personnel may justify the amount of force they use wasc fonsidered a "crime" and what isn't excessive emotion + natural outcome WOMEN -Organized crime hit-men claim that it was life or death situatioes-tern cultures tend to blame women for their victimization duress (women who stay in abusive relationships are: "sick" , "masochistic" , →Offenders may even try to put blame on the victim (she sai" dbrngbitshiteupon themselves") meant yes) TRUTH? women don't have the financial stability to leave + even if they ------------------- did would be difficult to find alternative housing because they've been Victim kept in isolation Victimless Crimes : criminal acts where a victim doesn't exist anpoliieittervention can do very little to help immigrant victims/women or immediate way (ex. gambling or abusing drugs) (but immigrant women say that police reaction would make the situation -those that argue to legalize victimless crimes say that conswenotne) adults should have the freedom to be involved in certain ac →tivtiis may be influenced by family members to stay in family for kids, or →criminalization tends to affect the disadvantaged that cannotfaursyemembers choose sides these activities in private ----------------- →problems with victimless crimes would be eliminated if behavioT urird Parties were allowed and in regulated environments Third Parties: criminal act participants whose presence may affect the Canadian General Social Survey - CGSS : national survey that periodicoaulyome even though they are not centrally involved in the event as an focuses on criminal victimization/crime prevention behaviour/perceptioffnnder/victim crime referred to as "innocent bystanders" - not true → they can →survey showed that highest rates of violent/property crime experie pnrevent/intervene/facilitate the offender from escalating the conflict by people aged 15-24 →people over 65 are the least likely to be vi3 ctiIsTINCT ROLES OF THIRD PARTIES of crime 1. Partnership GENDER -attempt to intervene on behalf of one the participants at expense of -males experienced a robbery rate of 13/1000 + women experienced 8/1000 another (ex. supplies weapon or holds something) -males experienced an assault rate of 91/1000 + women experienced 2. Inaction 59/1000 -staying on the sidelines -males experienced a sexual assault: 7/1000 + women experienced 35/1000 -mere presence of a crowd may signal tolerance of violence MINORITIES 3. Settlement -studies generally support that poor people + ethnic minorities are more -like inaction, suggest neutrality but implies engagement likely to become victims →third parties may try to enforce control by contacting reinforcement →Natives are x3 more likely to be victims than non-Natives (police) VICTIM PERCEPTIONS Several factors determine what third parties do • their relationship to victim or offender • assessment on what they have to lost/gain when intervening • confidence in ability to intervene • may fear that contact could result in problems with • what they think is going on between victim and offender immigration status (ex. research suggest that bystanders are less likely to get involved iflems with inexperience with new country = many conflict involves a man/women or with children - "private matters"igrants having negative experiences with police -presence of several bystanders reduces the likelihood that any•one immigrants usually settle in high-crime areas = promote inaction bystander will help the victim especially if bystanders are strregarding community level crime problems (institutionalized racism) from different cultures • unfamiliar with justice system of new country may make -------------------- immigrants unaware Police and Crime • fear of retaliation by group members may prevent police -police have power to "certify" an event as a crime by assessing reporting match between the event as police understood + their knowledgemore serious the crime = more likely it will get reported what the law doesn't allow Proactive Policing: police involvement in incidents as result of their own crime is best viewed as "rational decision-making" process that take account the offender/victim/limitations of police investigative activities = may bring attention events that ma2. PROACTIVE POLICING to be crimes (10% of the time) influenced by police priorities/outstanding community Reactive Policing: police involvement in criminal events at the request of concerns/available police resources public -widespread concern about specific crime issues may influence police to 1. REACTIVE POLICING adopt proactive mobilization strategy -most crimes that come to police attention are reported by victims ---------------- themselves Police Involvement in Defining Criminal Events →Sexual assault is least likely to be reported (police not infpolice actions depends on variety of factors: characteristics of 88% of sexual assaults) incident/participant behaviour/nature of requests being made of police →Break and Enter was most likely to be reported (54% reported→the relationship between the offender and the victim = more distant the REASONS FOR NOT REPORTING relationship = more likely police will regard incident as "criminal" • victim didn't consider the incident important enough to report -U.S study showed that police are less likely to apply legal solutions in • victim felt police couldn't do anything about it conflicts involving African-Americans or female victims • perceive that crime was personal/private matter →CJS deals more harshly with female offenders than male offenders COMMUNITY • victim was involved in criminal activity at the time and are reluctant to invite police investigation -community tolerance for certain kinds of offences could affect degree • victims have other ways to deal with situation (revenge) where police feel need to intervene - size of community and level of social disorganization (police less -people who view the CJS negatively may be reluctant on contacting them likely to intervene in small communities) IMMIGRANTS →degree to how policing organizations train officers in community will influence the types of situations where they will intervene + nation of -are one of the least likely groups to contact police attention • lack of professionalism amongst police in immigrant's home intervention country could discourage involvement with CJS CHARACTERISTICS OF INCIDENT -seriousness of crime: weapons/extent injury/multiple offenders • language difficulties ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS - ability to respond to calls for service + requirement to prioritizncialbourhoods with social/economic disadvantages tend to have Youth Criminal Justice Act - reduce the amount of youth being plaheghier levels of both property and violent crime custody (areas are poor an densely populated with hobo population) →when act came into effect = incarcerated youth rate decreased Physical Setting substantially -there are "hot spots" that take responsibility for calling for police Mandatory Charge Rule : regulation that requires police, in domesassistance (ex. 3% of locations in a city and accounted for 50% of violence cases, to make an arrest when they have physical evidenc323,979 calls in Minneapolis) an assault has taken place various commercial establishments seem to concentrate crime + →discovered that arrest is most effective in deterring violence aforms of social disorder (bars/malls/illicit establishments) close relationship personnel ex. an adult store opening = crime rate in village rose 60% →2/3 of cases, police gave warning + in less than half of all cas→2 years later when the store closed, crime rates dropped 60% offenders were removed + 1/3 of cases , arrests + charges were la-Data also showed that 4-% of violent victimization incidents took place ------------- around commercial/public institutions -some say that removing police judgements reduces chance that police →26% took place on a street/other public place bias will influence decisions about seriousness of certain violen→29% took place at a home or another private residence →deprives police the opportunity to resolve situations before they -------------------- become dangerous Characteristics of locations of criminal events? -research shows that arrests may actually increase likelihood of vi•lenceEx. Property crimes, easy to target if there are places of in domestic situations concealment (bushes, poor street lighting, hidden alley ways) -critics of Mandatory Charging say that it reduces amount of control • Relationship violence tends to happen in private settings (homes) women have rather than increasing it (prevalent amongst ethnic = ensure concealment of violence - Occurs mostly in the Kitchen women) • Temporal Settings -------------------- Settings of Criminal Events -criminal events are more likely to occur in particular places + at particular times (not randomly distributed) • Social Settings -research from American National Crime Victimization Survey stated that -to say that crime is random at different places means that location has 53% of violent incidents happen during the day (6 a.m - 6 p.m) + 2/3 of some involvement (PLACE MATTERS) rapes + sexual assaults happened at night (6 p.m - -why do some places host more criminal events ? certain people are →Miethe + McCorkle suggest that evenings + weekends are PEAK attracted to certain place TIMES for most violent + property crimes • Community Settings (night provides victims with less protection + better concealment + -generally believed that crime rates tend to be higher in more urban engage in alcohol/drug consumption) places MONTHS (small urban areas tend to have higher crime rates than larger areas) -January: financial institutions are most likely to get robbed (rural areas tend to have lowest crimes rates) Quebec - highest / Alberta - lowest -Summer: individuals get robbed (vacation) →Urban rate of crime: 112/1000 + Rural rate of crime 84/1000 ----------- MOST IMPORTANT LEVEL: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGE Social Domains -Social Domains: major spheres of life in which we spend most of our time and energy 3 Important Social Domains 1. Family + Household 2. Leisure -Many juvenile crimes happen during leisure domains = occur when youth are hanging out (drug use, homicide, vandalism) 3. Work -Organized crime is a form of work (offending behaviour may be an extension of one's business) ------------------- -different age-groups and social status spend more time on different domains (kids spend more time on leisure domains whereas elderly spend more time on family domain) -criminal events that went "undetected" in "privacy" of own home = more likely to attract public attention + police action →ex. White collar crimes -according to # of victim surveys : people who report that they often to go to bars in the evening = higher rates of victimization ?? Why should particular kinds of social domains host particular kinds of criminal events?? ANSWER?? - effects of social domains may somehow "interact" with 1. Precursors effects on criminal events -studying precursors allows us to see that behaviour that is (particular family settings may interfere with work settings = dramaticidered "criminal" in one situation may not have the same increase of possibility of criminal events happening consequences in other situations -------------- →participant relationships/interpretation of harmfulness of Studying Criminal Event acts/responses to certain behaviour /location = may/may not combine COMPREHENSIVE VIEW to create a criminal outcome • considers the "precursors" of an event (locational + determine precursors = must reconstruct criminal events by situational factors) info from witnesses/victims who use their bad memories as • the "transactions" (the interactions between participants of evidence conflict) 2. Transactions studying circumstances/incidence/frequency of certain types of • the "aftermath" (report to the police/their response/harm done/long-term consequences of the event) crime -criminologists view criminal events not by it alone but rather how it relates to social events + to other criminal events -people also want to understand how crime pattern trends coin -miuehwaiention has been directed at figuring out motivations/group trends in social + economic conditions pressures that influence criminal behaviour (may show the vulnerability of different groups and how they res autdoof offender perceptions gives important source of info about social change) pressures that direct individuals to behave in certain ways -Strict definition of criminality derives from ----------------------------- 1.police actions Lecture Week 3 2. who certifies criminality by starting a legal process " What about the events that do not come to the attention of theOolcerbintg Crime that we could nevertheless define as criminal?" -observation can be accomplished in several ways →important question - what the public defines as 'criminal' + how researcher can covertly observe a setting where criminal police deal/target victims + offenders events are known to occur with some frequency CRIMINAL EVENTS ARE DYNAMIC attempt to gain access to police/private security surveillance 1. responsiveness to interactional factors in environment videotapes to monitor action in high-crime setting 2. claims that are made about them by interested parties associate with people who engage in offending behaviour in 3. Aftermath order to observe their actions + actions of those who they interact with -we are concerned with actual event + reactions by police/victims/others get permission from local police to join patrol officers for tours of duty on city →interested in degree of harm the victim went through + resourceLimitations??? for their recovery →if offenders feel that they can repeat offence without getting intoy not be very efficient because crimes that interest people are statistically rare events (criminal events happen infrequently) trouble criminal behaviour is usually secretive behaviour - those that engage ----------------------- in criminal behaviour generally do whatever to not get caught Summary -a criminal event has a beginning and an end : involve interactionsobservational methods raise ethical issues -observers should be concerned about legal/moral obligations when among people (social) observing a crime →social interactions will determine stages where event will proceed/how serious it will become 4. the data collected by direct observation are limited with respect to types of questions they answer -we need to understand how each criminal element combines/intera-direct observations may allow us to observe criminal events but don't other elements (ex. we cannot figure out a solution with just a single question "why domuch about why they happen or why some people are prone to behave this way some men commit sexual assaults?" - we need to give more debate Ethnographic Research - "why some women are more likely than others to be victimized Ethnographic Research: studies where the researcher tries to directly assaults?" - "when and where do such acts occur the most?" observe + interact with people being studied in a naturally occurring environment - why justice personnel think about sexual assault the way they -involves systematic approach to studying the social world which must ------------- Offender summaries be undertaken with great care →to be fun, one must avoid various: ethical/emotional/methodological traps involved in ethnographic method Assumptions 1. formal interviews with offenders/victims/other crime participants give very limited research data -have a very difficult time gaining access to outlawed gangs/organized crime groups/professional offenders -researcher tries to not only speak with but also observe directly + interact with test subjects 2. to understand social phenomena, one must be able to understand it the way those that participate it do -------- - observational study aka "participant observation" "I am a researcher who is interested in studying you" - emphasis is more on observer than participant -another attempt is for researchers to go "undercover" = the participant has very little to no knowledge that they are being studied or researcher's identity ETHICAL? (growing emotional attachment or lose objectivity = researcher themselves may become involved in such behaviours) -TIME CONSUMING TOO : researcher doesn't live in same area as participant/review board may take too long to access project METHODOLOGICAL? -the main reason given for crimes not progressing through the system or not -the generalization of research - one observation project caresulting in conviction was "lack of evidence" used to define other similar projects --------------------------- (ex. the data from observing gang members cannot be used to Police Reports other gang members of different gangs) -police record data are quantitatively/qualitatively superior to those ----------------------------- maintained by courts + correctional agencies Crime Funnel Quantitative: police data surrounds larger number of criminal events Crime Funnel: volume-reducing system - meaning that there isQualitative: police data are not directly subject to various sorting of attrition as cases travel through various stages of CJS procedures -different criminal agencies have different data values = di-police crime data are based on criminal events where police have data are collected knowledge -high level of attrition (reducing of numbers) as cases trav-2004 General Social Survey (GSS) (victimization) showed that approximately various stages of CJS 2/3 of crime experienced by victims weren't reported to police →not all criminal events come to police attention result in (types + number of crimes where police have knowledge = reporting arrests go to trial/not all trials result in convictions behaviour of members of public) →not all criminal events that come to police attention becomes part of official record --------- -in mid 1980s - new UCR version (UCR2) - newer version didn't just -even if one gets hold of police = not necessarily that police will respond witinclude total # of crimes but detailed information about each incident seriousness or treat it as an "official" matter or something other than a crime(by 2007, all policing agencies were using this version) -Event Characteristics increase likelihood that crime will be reco-revisions make possible for researchers to use data to answer wide • events that have high degree of legal seriousness are more range of questions which couldn't be answered previously likely to be recorded as crime • age/sex/relationship/location of crime/whether weapons were used/whether victim was injured • strong, physical evidence or compelling testimony that shows a crime has occurred ----------------------------- • a person makes complaint to the police that urges for actionports Victim Reports/Surveys: large scale studies that ask individuals about their to be taken • highly professional police departments are more likely toence with crime officially report crimes second major sources of information about criminal events -surveys may ask victims what happened/how they reacted/whether police →tend to make greater use of crime data in developing departmental priorities + deploying resources (these departments have highermmoned/what costs were sustained: physical/psychological incentive at all levels to "write up" a larger number of police-citizenjor Victimization Surveys • Canadian Urban Victimization Survey (CUVS) - interactions -as offence moves through CJS, description of events undergo 1982 significant changes + may be shifted from different categories, • Solicitor General - 1983 • Violence Against Women Survey (VAWS) - 1993 downgraded, ignored ----------------------------- • Canadian General Social Survey (GSS) Uniform Crime Reporting System (UCR) -plan is to continue to conduct GSS victimization surveys in roughly 5 UCR : survey made by Statistics Canada based on crime reports from year intervals police departments nationwide largest + best known crime survey is NCVS (American National Crime -was developed through joint efforts of Statistics Canada + CanaVictimization Survey) Association of Chiefs of Police in 1962 →collects victimization information from representative group of 76,000 OBJECTIVE: provide police departments with consistent set of households comprising nearly of 135,300 individuals in the US procedures for collecting info relevant to crime that comes to p-NCVS had major revisions in 1992 - purpose was to facilitate collection attention of info relating to areas of sexual victimization and better incorporate -throughout most of history - UCR recorded total # of incidents improved survey technology + procedures to police in each jurisdiction -because victimization is statistically rare = large number of interviews must →includes counts of: reported offences/# of offences that have "be conducted if surveys are to give sufficient # of cases for analysis status"/ # of actual offences -most victimization research is done over telephone = more efficient →includes gender + adult/youth status (but restrict data collection to households that have phones) Clearance Status: judgement made by police based on identificatiVictimization interviews have 2 parts least one of offenders involved in offence (whether police can identify at 1. all respondents are asked screening questions least one offender in offence) -these questions gather basic info on: gender/age/other social + ------------ demographic characteristics of respondents UCR2 2. used to identify respondents who have experienced +1 types of -like victimization surveys, allow the sample to be broken up into victimization that are of interests to researchers respondents who have/haven't be involved in criminal events • certain crimes thought to be under-counted (ex. domestic violence)ow comparison of offenders/non-offenders in terms of social + lifestyle characteristics) • under-counting may result because people forget things that happened to them (especially if crime was minor orported Delinquency are collected 2 ways if victim is accustomed to being victimized) 1. use questionnaires that includes a checklist of delinquent acts + asked to indicate whether they have committed each of the acts + • people may forget/misinterpret time frame of their experiences + report crimes that are actually outside time often reference of study 2. researchers may ask respondents about their delinquent conduct in face-to-face interviews • respondents may lie to please interviewer (fabricate crime) ------------------------- IMPORTANT WHY??? Limitation of Crime Reports 2 issues need consideration 1. victimization surveys collect info directly from victims of cr. type of event that is captured by each method of data collection us about crimes that haven't been reported to police -provide more valid estimate of ACTUAL crime rate 2. perception brought to bear on those events that are captured ------------------------- 2. use samples drawn from general population - data is collectedWhat type of event? victims/non-victims -compare 2 groups + analyze which social/demographic groups that-victimization surveys target "common deliquencies" - criticized for excluding more serious but less common types of delinquency + face greatest possibilities of victimization emphasizing non-serious forms of delinquency 3. enable us to investigate the consequences of victimization + the ways that victims cope with consequences -loose interpretation of criminal data (asking people to put their hands up if ---------------------- they ever...) support that criminal offending is more common than official statistics would make us to believe Offender Reports UCR includes crime without direct victims + crimes committed -interviews with offenders can give important insight into their behaviour/attitudes/motivations against businesses/community/individuals who are unlikely to appear in surveys -most common form of data collected is from inmates/those →limitation of UCR is that it collects data on crimes that police know convicted of an offence and awaiting sentences -surveys of this type can show: use of weapons/characteristics ofbout -------------------------- offender' victims Whose Perception? CONCERN? -generalization of findings -victimization data relies on victim's perception of criminal events Telescoping: reporting a crime as occurring during the reference period →many offenders aren't captured/many captured are not convicted when it actually occurred at an earlier time sentences →opposite to Telescoping - when victim doesn't want to share what ------------------------- Self-Report Studies happened or may have forgotten -some victims may fear telling researchers their experiences respondents' report about their involvement as offenders especially if it involves other family members or a sexual assault -similar to victimization surveys - respondents are asked about their
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