Biology 107 Lab Final Review colour coded.docx

12 Pages
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Department
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Course Code
BIOL107
Professor
Carla Starchuk

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Description
Lab 1 Microscopes Scientific Method OsmosisDefinitionsColony small mass of genetically identical cellsPure Culture Isolated group of genetically identical cellsMedium a solution or solid that contains nutrients cells can use to grow and divide It can be left as a liquid or mixed with a substance to solidify itUsing Microscope1Turn light intensity to its lowest poweroReduces strain on the bulb when it is turned on2plug in microscope and turn it on3use coarse adjustment knob to move stage down to lowest position4place slide on stage click 4X objective lens into place Turn light up to midpower and use stage adjustment knob to position the specimen so like from condenser is shining on it5Move stage up to highest position6Focus on the slide by lowering the stage with the course and fine adjustment knobsoFor smalltransparent specimens focus on the edge of your coverslip and then move slide until you can see the specimen7set interpupillary distance by moving the ocular lens together or apart8focus the condenser lensaclose the field diaphragm to reduce the light to a small octagonbfocus the condenser lens using the condenser focusing knob until edges of the octagon are sharpcopen the field diaphragm to allow the full amount of light through the specimenoonly when both specimen and condenser are in focus can the sharpest clearest image be obtained9rotate the 10X lens into place10use fine focus knob to focus specimenLight Microscope light travels from the light source shines on the specimen and the lenses magnify its imageCondenser Lens focuses light from light source onto specimenObjective Lens magnifies the image of the specimenOcular Lens magnifies the image and inverts it for better viewing Contains micrometerCondenser Diaphragm iris that controls the amount of light entering the lens system Decreasing amount of light can improve contrastContrast the difference between light and dark areas Can make translucent or unstained specimens stand out against the backgroundCoarse Adjustment Knob moves stage up and down Only used for low power lensesFine Adjustment Knob brings image into sharp focus under low power used for all focusing under high powerBody Tube hollow tube containing prism that allows light to pass from objective lens to ocular lensInterpupillary Distance distance between your pupils Incorrectly set can cause eye strain incorrect measurements and may affect microscopes ability to be parfocalMagnificationOcular MicrometerParfocal objective lens can be changed without having to refocus microscopeResolution capacity to distinguish two adjacent points as being distinctResolution Value minimum distance required between two points for them to remain identifiable as separate pointScientific Method 1Formulate an idea or questionoUsually idea comes from an observation2Formulate a hypothesis3Test the hypothesisoDone through observations experiments or bothoCompares two groups tat are the same except for one condition or variableoYou must test all the assumptions that are madeoMain assumption is that the independent variable affects the dependentoRequires two tests experimental group and control groupoEach substance you add even if it is to both experimental and control groups has built in assumptionsoPositive and negative control groups are designed to give positive and negative results4Draw a conclusion based on the data obtained oDoes data refute or support the original hypothesisoCompare experimental and control groupsoHypothesis was refutedcome up with an alternative hypothesis based on these conclusions5 From hypothesis to theoryHypothesis educated guess that predicts the answer to your question Based on prior knowledge and a review of published literature Constantsthe factors which are kept constant throughout the experimentIndependent Variable variable of interest that is manipulatedDependent Variable measured result of the manipulationExperimental Group examines effect of the independent variable on the dependent variableControl Group examines the dependent variable in the absence of the independent variableSolvent Control Group control group that examines the solvent used in the experiment Confirms that the effect on the dependent variable is due only to the independent variable and not the solventOsmosis oWater moves across membranes from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentrationoPassive transportoPlant prokaryotes some protists have cell wall which constrains the size of the cytoplasm and prevents plasma membrane from rupturing Hypotonic solution with lower solute concentration than the cell Turgid cell fills with water and swellsHypertonic solution with higher solute concentration than the cell Plasmolysis water leaves the cell plasma membrane pulls away causes deathIsotonic solution with the same solute concentration as the cell Flaccid no net movement of water reduced pressure on the cell walloTo determine whether a species is marine and freshwater compare the size of the cells in their original bathing solution to their size in a salt solutionCalculationsTotal magnificationmagnificationx magnificationocular lens objective lens1 mm1 000 m1m1 000 nmLab 2 Streaking Bacterial Cells Membrane Structure and FunctionMembrane Structure and FunctionMembranesoSeparate the contents of the cell from the external environmentoOrganize chemicals and reactions into specific organelles within the cell
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