*i need to stop typing everything that is already available online in slides. just
Bourdieu is looking at relations that produce class. It is far more complex than
Jepperson and Meyer.How is it that the particular relations are made between positions
in the field of power where people are in contest for resources?
it has to do with how people classify themselves and others through language and
they make these relations through the mediation of four different types of capital:
like Boudieu, Althusser and Wolff are interested in how relations and conditions
how is it that the state has power over individuals? how do individuals recreate these
wolff is interested in why capitalism persists. his answer is consumerism.
THE LOGIC OF CAPITALISM RECAP
marx looks at the forces of production and how it is that capitalists can make profit.
this is a model for explaining how one mode of production works.
marx wanted to explain how it is the capitalist makes money.
althusser: "the ultimate conditions of production is therefore the reproduction of the
conditions of production" P.1
marx said capitalism is going to end because of problems in the system. problems:
LABOUR POWER: the capacity to work, NOT the quantity of labour value added to a
commodity. capitalist pays worker for a day's labour power—i.e., for unlimiied use of
labour for a whole day.
It is beyond the maintenance of life, there is also cultural expectation from wage
that marx talks about: english need beer and french need wine. he is saying it is not
just about capitalism paying people enough to stay alive. this is called the
not because capitalists "recognize" culture (like having beers after work), but
because of class struggle:
- absolute suprolus value: longer days, reduction of wages, and layoffs for
ALTHUSSER WANTS TO KNOW WHY CAPITALISTS RECOGNIZE THIS HISTORICAL MINIMUM: it is not that capitalists are reproducing the wage, it is about the ideology that
justifies these relations (labourers working for less than the capitalists are making
from their labour).
somewhere in the formula of MCM', there must be SOMETHING that reproduces the
relations of the workers to their work that allows them to return to work instead of
what is this false consciousness coming from..
EXAMPLES AND DATA
1. specialization of the workforce
- ON THE JOB TRAINING IS OVER. VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS EMERGE.
2. emergence of a particular basic skill set
- THE THREE R'S, READING WRITING ARITHMETIC, ARE NOW FOR EVERYONE
3. bourgeoisie schooling system
- ALSO LEARN RULES OF BEHAVIOUR LIKE MORALITY, PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT, RESPECT FOR
DIVISION OF LABOUR, AND MANNER OF SPEAKING (GIVING RECIEVING ORDERS)
THESE ARE TYPES OF RELATIONS THAT REPRODUCE THE CAPITALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, or more
precisely, the conditions for that mode of production to take place. the conditions of
we must understand both sides of the coin...
WE MUST UNDERSTAND HOW BOTH CLASS POSITIONS ARE REPRODUCED: why is it that bourgeoisie
also think of themselves in the way they do: as order givers.
THE WORKER MUST ACCEPT THEIR EXPLOITATION
- justifications: i have a really good job, etc
SCHOOLS AND STATE INSTITUTIONS PREPARE FUTURE WORKERS IN BOTH CLASSES, BOURGEOIS AND
proletariat learn to be submissive. bourgeoisie learn to be dominative.
MATERIALITY OF IDEOLOGY
ideology typically has to do with belief systems, but althusser gives it a materialist
WHAT IS THE MECHANISM THAT REPRODUCES THE CONDITIONS OF PRODUCTION.
metaphor of the building: to say that one cannot exist without the other is to imagine
them like a building, need a base (Capitalist Mode of Production) in order for ht
state to "stay up"
STATE : force of repressive execution and intervention. the state protects the
interests of the capitalist bourgeoisie during class struggle.
how is it that the state (the top of the building) is relying on the continuation of
its foundation (the capitalist mode of production)
even though there are laws that say we are free to choose where we work etc, these
laws actually protect the rights of the bourgeoisie to pay a minimum and maintain
their capital. exploitation is completely legal and ok in our society.
the power is violent but also economic.
and the state is not alone as a solitary repressive state apparatus
there are polyvalent public institutions that make up the ideological state
apparatuses. IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUS (ISA's)
the reality presented to us (individuals, society) in the form of distinct institutions
the state is the solitary Repressive State Apparatus. but it is reinforced by these
"private" IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUSES: religious, educational, family, legal,
political parties, trade-uniions, the media, clutural (ie literature, arts, sports,
- the state is the precondition for the distinction between private and public. this
distinction is a mere ruse when it comes to ideology.
- so the interests of the bourgeoisie are protected from reprisal by the distinctions
their own institutions draw.
REPRESSIVE STATE APPARATUS (RSA's)
the "force of repressive executing and intervention" p.8. protects interests of bourgeoisie
during class struggle.
rsa's function by violence. you see them come out during protests from Bloody Sunday
1905 to seattle 1999.
they are related to ideology through the belief that the force is justified when the
police use violence to put down protests etc. media are related when they attempt to
justify the police's action by painting protestors as violent or 'other'.
IDEOLOGY IS THE MEANS BY WHICH THE REPRODUCTION
OF THE RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION IS SECURED. p.15
power is secured by the actual violence and force of the ruling class using state
power to repress the masses.
rsas are centralized through state power, and the bourgeoisi