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Sociology of Power 334 10-23

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Ariane Hanemaayer

SOCIOLOGY 334 JULIET MITCHELL continued sought to produce valid knowledge about how patriarchy is maintained with respect to: • production • reproduction • sexuality • socialization these are real mechanisms that she can identify as reproducing male domination and female oppression she advocates using scientific data to explain male dominance, if we can find the mechanisms we can actually correct them. (as opposed to a normative project of feminists just trying to solve the issues without knowing about it) CATHERINE MACKINNON DOES NOT TRUST THE SCIENTIFIC POSITION, THE OBJECTIVE POSITION. CRITIQUES THE MODE OF KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION BY OBSERVATION. SCIENCE IS AN INSTANCE OF MALE DOMINATION the MALE POINT OF VIEW is the 'neutral view' of OBJECTIVITY they stand in a position of privilege where they can observe. claims to 'value neutrality' signify a position of privilege in knowledge production and understanding: scholars claims to have knowledge that those they study do not. this is a very epistemological argument. knowledge is produced in such a way that privileges the male gaze. the object of feminism is to study sexuality. - she parallels marx's position on work to the woman's experience of sexuality. - marx looks at how structures are organized to reproduce the necessity of accumulating capital. mackinnon wants to look at woman's subordination in the same structural way. SEXUALITY IS NOT INHERENT, it is a social product. it is a social process that creates, organizes, and expresses DESIRE. like mitchell she says it is both historical and universally specific. "HETEROSEXUALITY IS ITS PREDOINANT STRUCTURE, GENDER IS ITS SOCIAL PROCESS, THE FAMILY IS A CONGEALED FORM, SEX ROLES ARE ITS QUALITIES GENERALIZED TO TWO SOCIAL PERSONAS, AND REPRODUCTION IS A CONSEQUENCE." P.49 - HETEROSEXUALITY is not just normative, it is the dominant form. other forms exist (as marx points out about modes of production) but heterosexuality is the main one. - the FAMILY is the congealed form. it is like the workplace in marx. - material consequence is the reproduction of humans. CHECK THE NOTES ABOUT THIS this is why she comes to conclusions like RAPE AS A CULTURAL FACT "Feminism is a theory of how the erotization of dominance and submission creates gender, creates woman and man in the social form in which we know them" GENDER IS A MATTER OF DOMINANCE ITSELF. it is a role. GENDER IS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT. THE SUPERIORITY OF MEN IS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE "SOCIAL MEANING OF DIFFERENCE" AS GENDER-BASED. RAPE is a consequence of this relation of heterosexuality and its production of desire, it is an actual manifestation of the relations of dominance, it is symptomatic, it can't help but bubbling up
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