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Midterm Exam Study Notes

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1090
Wright& Newmaster

Two classes of cells 1 Prokaryoticbacteria structurally simpler dont have membranebound organelles 2 Eukaryoticprotists fungi plants animals more complex membranebound organelles Nuclear Pore ComplexEnables movement of molecules into and out of nucleus Cytoskeletal Elements actinintermediate filaments microtubulesContribute to cell shape supports structure transport of material VirusesNoncellular macromolecular packages can function and reproduce ONLY within living cellsOutside of cellsvirion inanimate particleinactivecomprised of small amount of DNA or RNA encoding a few to hundreds of genes protein capsulecapsid does not have a nucleusBind to cell surface via specific proteins then enter cellthis defines the cell types the virus can infect and host rangeWhen inside cell utilized cellular machinery to synthesize nucleic acids and proteinsassembles new virus particlesTwo types of viral infection 1 Lyticproduction of virus particles ruptures kills cell 2 Nonlytic Integrativeviral DNA is inserted in host genomeprovirus viral progeny bud at cell surface cell can survive often w impaired functioncell can still survive but does not function properly Plasma Membrane ONLYCell boundaryControl movement of material intoout of cellAllow response to external stimuliEnable interactions bw cellsProvide scaffold for biochemical activities including energy transduction Biological MembranesBilayer of amphipathic lipidsProteinsintegral trans membrane proteins span the lipid bilayer peripheral membrane proteins associate with the outer surfaces of the lipid bilayer lipidanchored proteins are covalently attached to a lipid in the bilayer prion proteinAsymmetricaltwo leaflets have distinct lipid composition outer leafletglycolipids glycoproteins lipids proteins with carbohydrate attachedLipids move easily laterally within leafletLipid movement to other leafletslow not easyMembrane proteins can diffuse within bilayer movement of proteins is restricted some dont move rapid movementspatially limited long range diffusionslow biochemical transduction can dramatically alter proteins mobility in the membraneDynamic FluidMosaic ModelHydrophobicalpha helix Membrane Fluidity
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