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PSYC 1000
Jeffrey Yen

Psychology Exam Review Fall 2012 Professor Yen Module 23: Study and Building Memory memory: persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the blank) recognition: need only identify items previously learned (multiple choice) relearning: assesses the amount of time saved when relearning material encoding: process of information into memory system storage: retention of encoding material over time retrieval: getting information out of storage sensory memory: immediate, very brief recording of sensory memory information in memory system short term memory: holds a few items briefly (phone number) before stored/forgotten long term memory: relatively permanent/limitless storehouse of the memory system. Knowledge, skills, experiences working memory: conscious, active processing of auditory and visual-spacial information explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences, consciously “know” effortful processing: encoding requiring attention and conscious automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information- space, time, frequency, and word meanings implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection iconic memory: picture-image memory, no more than a few 10ths of a second echoic memory: auditory stimuli, sound/words recalled within 3-4 seconds short term memory decay: unless rehearsed, information is quickly lost chunking: organize items into familiar, manageable units mnemonics: memory aids, vivid imagery, organizational devices spacing effect: yield better long term information than through mass study testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving rather than reading shallow processing: encode on a basic level on appearance of words deep processing: encode based on meaning of words-best retention Module 24: Storage; Retaining Information explicit memory: facts and experiences, one can declare/know hippocampus: neural centre located in limbic system, process explicit memories implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection flashbulb memory: clear memory of emotionally significant events long term potentiation: increase in cells firing potential after rapid stimulation Module 27: Thinking cognition: all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating concept: mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, people prototype: match new items, quick and easy method for sorting items into categories algorithm: rule that guarantees solving particular problem heuristic: strategy that allows to make judgements and solve problems efficiently, faster but more prone to errors than an algorithm insight: realization of problem's solution confirmation bias: search for more information that supports preconceptions, ignore contradictory evidence mental set: approach problem in a particular way intuition: effortless, automatic feeling/thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning availability heuristic: likelihood of events based on availability/memory, presume events are common overconfidence: tendency to be more confident than correct- over estimate accuracy of beliefs and judgements belief perseverance: clinging to one's initial conceptions framing: way an issue is posed, can significantly affect decisions and judgements Module 28: Language and Thought language: spoken, written words, combination creates meaning phoneme: smallest distinctive sound unit morpheme: smallest unit that carries meaning (word or part of a word) grammar: system of rules in a language, communicate babbling stage: at 4 months, stage of speech development, utter various sounds from household language one word stage: stage from 1-2, child says single words two word stage: stage when child speaks with 2 word statements telegraphic speech: early speech stage, child speaks like a telegram, “go car,” nouns and verbs aphasia: impairment of language, left hemisphere damage Broca's area: controls language expression, left frontal lobe Wernicke's area: controls language reception, comprehension, expression, left temporal lobe linguistic determinism: Whorf's hypothesis, language determines the way we think Module 32: Basic Motivational Concepts and Hunger motivation: a need or desire that energizes/directs behaviour instinct: complex behaviour, rigidly patterned throughout species, unlearned drive reduction theory: physiological need creates aroused tension (drive), motivates organism to satisfy needs homeostasis: maintain a balanced/constant internal state, regulation of any aspect of body chemistry incentive: positive/negative environmental stimulus behaviour hierarchy of needs: Maslow's pyramid of human needs, physiological to psychological glucose: form of sugar, circulates in blood, energy for bodily tissues set point: a weight that an individual always returns to basal metabolic rate: body's resting rate of energy expenditure Module 35: Introduction to Emotion emotion: response of a whole organism, psychological arousal, expressive behaviour, conscious experience James-Lange theory: experience of emotion, awareness of psychological responses Cannon-Bard theory: emotion-arousing stimulus, triggers psychological responses and subjective experience of emotion two factor theory: to experience emotion one must be physically aroused, cognitively label the arousal Module 14: Infancy and Childhood maturation: biological growth process, enable orderly changes in behaviour cognition: mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating schema: concept or framework organizes and interprets information assimilation: interpret new experiences in terms of existing schemas accommodation: adapting current understanding (schema) to incorporate new information sensorimotor stage: from birth-2, infants know world in terms of sensory and motor activities object permanence: awareness that things continue to exist when not perceived egocentrism: child's difficulty taking another point of view pre operational stage: 2- 6/7, child learns to use language, doesn't comprehend logic conservation: properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same as form of object changes theory of mind: ideas about mental states, feelings, perception, and thoughts concrete operational stages: 6/7-11, gain mental operations to think logically about concrete concepts formal operational stage: stage of cognitive development (12 years), think logically about abstract concepts stranger anxiety: fear of strangers infants display @ 8 months attachment: emotional tie with another person critical period: exposure to certain stimuli produces normal development imprinting: animals form attachments during critical period very early in life basic trust: world is predictable and trustworthy, formed during infancy self concept: thoughts and feeling
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