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Review Notes Part 1 COMPLETE Review notes.

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University of Ottawa
James Fenwick

BIO 1140 PART I REVIEWTHE CELL THEORY Three Tenents 1 Schleiden 1838 and Schwann 1839 All living organisms are made up of cells 2 Schleidena dn Schwann The cell is the basic structural unit of life 3 Virchow 1855 Law of Biogenesis ominis cellula e cellulaAll cells come from preexisting cells Note for the law of biogenesis there is only ONCE that a cell occurred spontaneously the first very cell that randomly held a biochemical reaction with a semipermeable membrane Before the cell theoryRobert Hooke was first to see the cell he saw boxes in corkAntonie van Leewonhoek was the first to see blood cells sperm cells bacteria etcHe built his own microcope that magnified 300XRobert Brown was first to see the nucleusSchleidien worked with plant cells Schwann saw similar results with animal tissue Hierarchical Reductionism the study of looking at something more closely to explain properties that are seen at a larger scaleEx studying the effects of the red blood cells and haemoglobin Emergent properties properties that can only be seen on a holistic levelEx loveThree Branches of Cell Biology CytologyConcerned with cellular structure heavily based on observations in microscopes BiochemistryCovers the chemistry of biological systems and their functionsWohler was the first to demonstrate that urea which was initially thought of as a biological molecule could be synthesized in the labPasteur showed that living yeast cells were responsible for fermentation GeneticsFocuses on information flowCELL SIZE Measurements 1 Micrometre one million of a metre106 mEx a bacteria is 12 micrometres 2 Nanometer one billionth of a metre109 mEx lipid membrane is 510 nm thick 3 Angstrom more used for physics and chemistry ten billionth of a metre 01 nmThis is size of one hydrogen atom Cell sizesBacteria as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts are about 12micronsEukaryote cell is 1020 micronsHydrogen atom is 1 angstrom dna is 2 nm in width large molecules are 525 nm etcConsequence of size they are vulnerable to viscosity electrical charges and surface tension Limitations on Cell Size 1 Surface AreaVolume Ratio surface area is critical for exchange between environmentVolume determines nutrients needed to be importedIf volume is too big surface area cannot keep upSome increase surface area by having folds or protrusions 2 Diffusion Rates of Molecules molecules move through cell by diffusion if too big then this is less efficientLarger cells facilitate this by actively transporting ions and mixing with cyclosis 3 Need for Adequate Concentrations of Reactions and Catalysts a certain concentration is needed for reactions to occurEukaryotes compensate by compentalizing molecules to increase concentrationMicroscopy Two types of microscope 1 Light microscope theoretical resolving power is 100 nm its practical resolving power is 200 nm 2 Electron microscope theoretical resolving power is 0002 nm its practical resolving power is 02 nm Resolving power how close two objects can be seen as two distinct objects before one cannot tell they are distinct Limit of resolution for a visible light microscope is 03 microns in air and 02 microns in oil this is because light travels faster in oilLimit of resolutionbest quality of resolution Characteristics of Life 1 Selfreplication 2 Metabolism 3 They are made up of a similar chemical composition nucleic acids carbohydrates etc 4 Have a membrane that allows for materials to go in and out of the cell 5 Can pass down genetic information from generation to generation 6 Obtain energy using similarmetabolism ETC 7 Gain energy and materials from their outside environment 8 Are open systems 9 Use biological catalysts enzymes to speed up reactionsVIRUSES VIRIRONS AND PRIONS VirusIntracellular parasite consisting of DNARNA molecule that hijacks the metabolic machinery of other cells in order to replicate itself and to metabolizeThey are incapable of freeliving existence thats why they are not considered livingThey are composed of a capsid and their genetic information inside the capsidSome are enveloped meaning they are covered in a membraneThis usually is the membrane of the host cell VirionsIndependently replicating small circular pieces of RNA that do not code for proteins and that are loosely base paired meaning cytosine doesnt always pair with guanine that infect plant cells and cause many diseases such as avocado sunblotch PrionsA protein that have a different folding protein from the regular protein of its same polypeptideSome prions are able to cause properly folded proteins to refold in the same way as the other prionCertain prions are capable of causing disease such as scrapies or mad cow diseaseThey are both inherited and or acquiredPROKARYOTES VERSUS EUKARYOTES Prokaryotes Prokaryote Diversity There are two main types of prokaryotes 1 Archaea though called ancient bacteria this is misleading because they are more closely related to eukaryotesMethanogens produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen gasHalophiles live in very salt conditions ex areas of 55 M solutionAcidophiles live in extremely acidic areas ex pH of 01Thermophiles those who live in extremely hot conditions ex 113 degrees CUsually organisms with changes in temperature compensate for changes in temperature by having instantaneous rate compensation molecules change shape to work at temperature ranges or they may start to produce another enzyme 2 Eubacteria
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