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Biology Midterm 1.docx

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University of Ottawa
Doug Johnson

Fundamental chemistry is the sameBiologyMidterm1DNA is used for genetic information across all cell typesIntroductiontoCellBiologyMetabolism use of ATP as the A cell iscellular energy currencycontains RNA and DNA basic code Unitsthat controls the shape size and function of the cell and its offspring 61m10mas well91nm10mmade up of organic moleculesProkaryoteare15mandeukaryotesare10bounded by a membrane30minside it contains cytosol semiSurfaceAreatoVolumeRatioaqueous fluid contained moleculesSAtherateofexchangeofmaterialmade up of a set of organic moleculesVolumedeterminestheamountofmaterialrequiredtokeepupwithallthecell theory was formalized by Schwann but functionstokeepthecellalivegave credit to Scleiden first 2Relationshipbetweenhowmuch1all organisms consists of one or more materialisneededandhowfastthecellcells cangetit2the cell is the basic unit of structure for Asthecellgetlargerthisratioisfallingall organismsWecangetlargerorganismsbydividing3all cells arise only from preexisting cells intocompartmentseachwiththeirownie Basic unit of reproductionadequateconditionsDiversity of cellsElaboratethemembranestoincreaseSAShape often reflects functionRatesofdiffusionCells that are capable of carrying out Timerequiredfordiffusionisall functions of lifeproportionaltothedistancesquaredOthers are specialized for a specific Longdiffusiondistancesslowerratetask and have to be supportednotenoughtosustainlifeMost are very small but they can Adequate concentrationsvary in size egglarge celllong neutrons in giraffesAs the cell gets larger adequate concentrations to keep the cell alive 200nm to 13 cm in diameterincreasesUnityProkaryote All made up of proteins carbs lipids Staying small 15mnucleic acidsCytoplasmcytosolribosomes Protists single celled eukaryotic organelles etcorganismsBefore nucleusMulticellular fungi animals and plantsSingle circular chromosomeModel eukaryotesOne or more flagellaoSaccharomyces cerevisiae Simple living with the constraint of staying smallEnormous diversityyeast Model prokaryote Ecoli widely oArabidopsis thaliana weed used within biology to study different family of the mustard family aspects of prokaryote cells easy to grows in a petri dishgrow grows quickly gut in most mammalsEukaryoteDifference in complexity within cell membraneoCollection of membranesoCaenorhabditis elegans oGenetic material contained in round worm show age a membranegrows in a petri dish oOther membrane bound structuresoDrosphila melanogasterfruit Presence of organelles allows it to fly knows a lot about it be largerbreeds quickly genetic Adequate concentrations in a differences shows selective compartmentphenotypes Rather than diffusion it uses transport ie Motor proteinsIncrease in membrane SA for faster exchangeoMus musculus mouse Complexity in cytoplasmcan be biological research breeds largerquickly 3 month generation typeAll require energy much better at using energy and generating it due to the presence of mitochondria ETC
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