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Midterm

midterm 1.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC23H3
Professor
Joyce Parga

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Description
Adaptive trait/behavior increases reproductive success (RS) relative to others in the population - i.e. Lemurs mate guarding (post-copulatory) - i.e. Humans sexual jealousy (if a lady gets pregnant from her boyfriend, he will be raising someone elses kid) Primate Order Lemuroidea (lemur) Lorisoidea (loris and galago) Tarsioidea (tarsier) Ceboidea (NW) cebidae/callitrichidae Cercopithecoidea (OW) colobinae/cercopithecinae Hominoidea (human, ape, monkey) Anthropoids (humans, apes, monkeys) - Larger body - Larger brain - Reduced reliance on smell, visual communication more important - Almost all diurnal - Slower life-history Apes - Great apes: Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans - Lesser apes: Gibbons/siamangs Great apes Chimpanzees (MMMF) - Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) o Male dominance o Alpha always male o Copulation = reproduction - Pygmy chimp (Pan paniscus) & bonobos o Egalitarian o Sometimes alpha female o Copulation = many contexts To lessen tension To reconcile To greet (fission-fussion organization, i.e. penis fencing) Gorillas - SMMF or MMMF - At least 1 silverback male (the oldest, most dominant) Orangutans (Pongo) - Semi-solitary (single M and F come together to mate or when there is a lot of food) - Cheek flange (slab on side of the face) no function but maybe if F liked it, linked to genetic quality - Intense MM competition for F - Large sexual dimorphism - Forced copulation - a common mating strategy Lesser apes Gibbons and siamangs (lesser apes) - Live in stable male-female pairs (pair-bonded) - Monogamous (once thought), but extra-pair copulations Monkeys New World - Arboreal - Tails (some prehensile) - Smaller body than OW monkeys - MMMF or monogamous o Squirrel monkeys o Spider monkeys o Howler monkeys o Muriqui Old World - Terrestrial (some arboreal) - Larger body than NW monkeys - MMMF or SMMF o SMMF: hamadryas baboon o Vervet monkeys o Rhesus macaque o Mandrill Prosimians - Small - Nocturnal (huge eyes) - Faster life-history - MMMF or monogamous - Chemical communication i.e. scent marking o Sifaka o Ruffed lemur Monogamy - 1F1M exclusive o Owl monkey (Aotus) o Titi monkey Polyandry - 1F2M exclusive o Callitrichid (marmosets and tamarins) not all o Golden lion tamarin Polygyny - 1M2F exclusive o Colobus monkey o Patas monkey o Gelada baboon Polygynandry - 2M2F - multi-M multi-F or promiscuous o Chimpanzee (ape) o Savannah baboon (OW) o Brown lemur (prosimian) o Sifaka o Ring-tailed lemur Dispersed - Come together just to mate, and dont live in permanent social groups o Nocturnal prosimians, non-gregarious species o Aye-aye o Galago o Mouse lemur Mating success: number of copulations achieved Reproductive success: number of viable offspring produced Limiting factors in Potential rates - M RS: limited by access to mates & number of successful fertilization - F RS: limited by access to resources & pregnancy/lactation Reproductive variability - M: greater RS variability than females - High reproductive skew (the unequal partitioning of reproductive success among individuals in population) - Low reproductive skew (equal number of babies among M)Sexual selection: a form of natural selection on variation in individual ability to compete with same sex and to attract opposite sex - Intra-sexual selection o Selection that results from competition between same sex for mates o Body size, traits, male weaponry (chimp canine or antlers) get passed on o Sperm competition: ramped in baboons, creating large testicle size. No need for physical competition - Inter-sexual selection o Epigamic selection: mate choice o Selection that results from mate choice o M have traits that F like. If F keeps selecting these over time, you see the shift in the M physical appearance. o F more selective than M when choosing mates due to greater parental investment o If she makes a bad choice, she will waste time raising the baby that will die. Sexual coercion: show/threat of force that makes F more likely to mate with M when she is fertile, at some cost to F - Hamadryas baboon neck-biting - Gorilla showing aggression - Ring tailed lemur: a female who is not socially dominant yet but is physically sexually mature, a male wouldnt get off of her when she presented herself. It was not forced copulation but it could be called forced coercion. Forced copulation: an extreme form of sexual coercion where an individual is forcibly mated. - A male mating strategy o Orangutan both flanged and unflanged o Patas monkey o Spider monkey o Bonner macaque Human sexual aggression - Hypothesis: sexual coercion and forced copulation (rape) are human male mating strategies - Men unsuccessful in competition for resources/status to reproduce
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