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BIOA02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Cutin, Sporophyte, Cuticle

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ivana Stehlik
Study Guide

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BIOA02 Module 1
1-2. Tree of Life –Plants
Tree of life-Plants
A. Basel tree of life
B. Bryophytes
C. Lycophytes
D. Ferns
E. Gymnosperms
F. Angiosperms
A. Basel Tree of Life
Breakdown of Tree of Life
First appeared around 3600 million years ago
Includes Slime Molds, Algae, Plants, Fungi, and Animals
Algae first appeared around 1300 million years ago
Took more than 100 million year for life to originate
Both 12000
B. Bryophytes
No cuticle in bryophytes, only present in vascular plants to seal off water
Loss and uptake of water along whole surface of plant, because no
epidermis/ cuticle present
In vascular plants, water is up taken by plants
Can survive total desiccation
oBryophytes live in very moist environments, and can survive even if the
plant lost all of its water, since the plant evolved to find ways along to
survive without water
Bryophytes are found all around available surfaces, as mosses are a type of
bryophyte, mosses grown continuously if there is a lot of water available such as
BC (1531 annual rain) and ON (856 mm annual rain)
Bryophytes have no vascular system, as there is no specialization for water/sugar

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oBecause of no vascular backbone, bryophytes cannot grow tall, and are
usually small
oThe vascular system in vascular plants work as a backbone to help plants
grow tall, and it specializes in water/sugar transport
Bryophytes are typically small
Imperfect adaption for terrestrial life
oBryophytes lose (and take up) water very fast because no cuticle present
oBryophytes don’t transport water/nutrients very efficiently because no
vascular system
oAround 6000 of them, and majority are flat
oTo reproduce sexually, male gametes are released to female gametes, as
female eggs are waiting for male gametes
oAround 12 000
oAround 100
oTo reproduce, they grow these weird, long hornwort type structures
Generalized alternation of generations
Life cycle of Bryophytes (mosses)
oHave a haploid life cycle
Reproduce by:
oEgg is usually hidden
between leaves, and Antheridium
only single egg is
present Archegonium
B. Bryophytes

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Strong water dependence, fertilization
oThin water film required in order for flagella to swim to female
Life cycle of bryophytes (mosses)
oTo close the whole life cycle, 50% will grow into males, and 50% will
grow into females
oSpores are released into the air, wind is dependent for dispersion into new
Interpretation of the bryophyte life cycle
oSporophyte depends on gametophyte
oMale gamete (spermatozoid) self propelled over short distances
oSpores are wind dispersed over potentially long distances
oSporophytic generation is quite short lives compared to gametophytic
generation, as sporophytes live as a parasite on top of gametophytes
C. Lycophytes
Appeared around 430 million years ago
Conquering of dry land by vascular plants
oHave primitive but functional vascular tissues which are better adapted for
dry lands
oLycophytes were very well adapted for life in wet lands
Appearance is similar to recent vascular plants
Examples of lycophytes include: Quillworts, Clubmosses,
and Spikemosses (very tropical)
D. Ferns
Appeared around 350 million years ago, lots of fossil evidence of this time
Examples: Whisk Ferns, True Ferns, and Horsetails
oMostly located in the tropics, very diverse (75% found in tropics)
oTiny aquatic fern (Azolla) is the world’s smallest fern, that floats on top of
water, as well as the roots to get minerals from water
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