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Case 9 alcohol outlet densities and violent crime in CamdenData pertaining to neighbourhood social structure violent crime and alcohol density were collected for 98 block groups and analyzed using bivariateCrime activity related to alcohol es tablishment happens nearbyAuthors conclude that areas with high alcohol outlet densities experi enced more violent crime than low density areas Alcohol outlet densities explained close to 20 of the variabil ity in violent crimes across block groupsalcohol outlets include package stores where bottled drinks are purchased for consumption elsewhere as well as bars hotel lounges and clubs where consumption is on premises3 measures population density 1 measure residential stability 3 measures education 2 measures and race family gender and age composition 8 measuresAuthors have list of active alcohol outlets in 1994 from NJ Dept of Alco holic Beverage Control In all 117 outlets in Camden of which 84 com bine package and onsite consumption117 alcohol outlets authors successfully geocode 111 by street address Using point in polygon to per form spatial join for these 111 outletsthe authors calculate total outlets per 100 population in each block groupFrom police authors collect violent crime homicide rape assault rob bery data for 1994 Calculated as crimes per 100 population in block groupIt is unclear whether authors used Calls for service Incident Re ports or Arrest Reportsauthors provide no information on geocoding here Presumably the authors then used point in polygon to perform the spatial join that tells them the violent crime rate in each census block groupthey make no use of distances directly between block groupsThe authors focus is on firstorder lag only between a block group and its immediate neighboursNeighbourhood demography Demographics are the most recent statistical characteristics of a population These types of data are used widely in sociology and especially in the subfield of demography public policy and marketing Commonly examined demographics include gender race age disabilities mobility home ownership employment status and even location Demographic trends describe the historical changes in demographics in a population over time for example the average age of a population may increase or decrease over time Both distributions and trends of values within a demographic variable are of interest Demographics are about the population of a region and the culture of the people there Administrative dataRefers to information collected usually by government for some administrative purpose eg keeping track of the population eligible for certain benefits paying doctors or hospitals but not primarily for research or surveillance purposes Spasoff 1999 Manitoba Centre for Health Policys MCHPs research uses administrative data from hospital abstracts physician billing claims claims for prescription drugs and other health related data Using these data researchers can study the utilization of health resources over time and the variations in rates within and across the provincesAdministrative data result from administering health care delivery enrolling members into health insurance plans and reimbursing for services The primary producers of administrative data are the federal government state governments and private health care insurers Although the clinical content of administrative data includes only the demographic characteristics and diagnoses of patients and codes for procedures these data are often used to evaluate the quality of health care Administrative data are readily available are inexpensive to acquire are computer readable and typically encompass large populations They have identified startling practice variations across small geographic areas andsupported research about outcomes of care Many hospital report cards which compare patient mortality rates and physician profiles which compare resource consumption are derived from administrative data However gaps in clinical information and the billing context compromise the ability to derive valid quality
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