Study Guide Part 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
C Pennington

W.L. Mackenzie King: Prime minister of Canada (1921 26, 1926 30, 1935 48). The grandson of William L. Mackenzie, he was deputy minister of labour (1900 08) before being appointed Canadas first minister of labour (1909 11). Re-elected to the Canadian Parliament (1919), he became leader of the Liberal Party. As prime minister, he favoured social reform without socialism; he led the government with support from an alliance of Liberals and Progressives. He effected a more independent relationship between the Commonwealth nations and Britain. During and after World War II he unified a country often divided between English and French constituents. R.B. Bennett Bill Aberhart : Created Social Credit Theory. Won Election of Alberta of 1935. His Conservative government led till 1970 (after Social Credit failed). Harry Stevens: Stevens thought that Bennett was doing nothing to deal with corrupt big businesses. He left the Conservative party and formed the Reconstruction Party, 1935. Tim Buck: Ran the Communist Party of Canada which supported the violent overthrow of the government. Wanted to better lives of population, improve unions, and encourage protests. Directed by Joseph Stalin. Buck and the Kingston Eight arrested by Bennett for advocating violence (violated Section 98). Bennett released them due to public pressure. At the Maple Leaf Gardens Rally 1934, 17 000 people gathered at the Maple Leafs Gardens after Bucks release and waved Communist flags to show support. J.S. Woodsworth: Created the C.C.F. Social Credit: Started in Alberta. Created by Bible Bill Aberhart. The theory was that banks are keeping money from people. Government should give $25month to every family in Alberta. Very popular theory. Federal government disallowed Social Credit. Section 98: Extend out Communism. Any association that advocated would lead to punishment. The iron heel of ruthlessness to those who violated it. On-to-Ottawa Trek : 2000 men rode from Vancouver to talk with Bennett in 1935. Violent confrontation with RCMP in Regina. appeasement C.C.F.: Cooperative Commonwealth Federation. Feeling that this was the end of capitalism. Co-operative commonwealth federation between farmers, labourers and socialists. Leader was J.S. Woodsworth. Difference between socialism and communism was that socialism advocated social democracy. Communists only care about end result. Woodsworth created the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1933 they came up with the Reginal Manifesto which was a 10 point plan to eradicate capitalism and replace it with the CCF. Respected because of Woodsworths support. Dionne quintuplets: 1934. 5 identical quintuplets born in rural Ontario. Seized by the Ontario government who said they were unsafe with parents and 6 siblings. Taken to Quinland, raised in nursery, became tourist attraction. Made government $5 million. At age 10, reunited with parents. New Deal: Bennett announced that he would use new government interventions in the Election of 1935 to rescue the people of Canada, better economy. Unemploymenthealth insurance, minimum wage, maximum hoursdays of work a week, 8-hour workdays. Pogey: Term used for welfare during the Depression of the 1930s. Calgary gave about $60month; Halifax gave about $19month. Single men were not eligible at all. Most went to Vancouver. Election of 1935: Bennetts platform was Stand by Canada, Mackenzie-Kings platform was Its King or chaos. King and Liberals won 173 seats, Conservatives won 40, CCF won 7, Reconstuctionists won 1. Tories promised to repeal Section 98. Spanish Civil War: 1936. 13000 Canadians went as the Mackenzie- Papineau Battalion. They went to Spain to fight for democratic government. More than half of men killed. Only 35 survived unwounded. CBC: created in 1936. Means of national unity. NFB: created in 1939. Beginnings of Canadas own culture. Statute of Westminster: 1931. Canada granted virtual independence from Britain. Britain gave up disallowing decisions of Canadian government. Gained control of domesticforeign policies. Canadians still considered British subjects. Appeals to Supreme Court of Canada could be referred to JCPC. Could not amend their own contribution. Canadians not involved in troubles of other countries fireproof house. Laissez-faire: Unemployment was extremely high in Canada during the 1930s. Political leaders didnt know what to do; they assumed that things would get better. The Prime Minister of the time, Mackenzie Kings attitude towards the suffering country was laissez-faire which means leave things be. no commitments: Mackenzie-Kings attitude to international affairs was to not get involved in European affairs.
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