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Midterm

Study Guide for Midterm


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Anna Walsh
Study Guide
Midterm

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HLTB03 Notes I
Chapter 1: Sociology, Medicine, Health and Illness: An Overview
Allopathic medicine ± the treatment of disease by conventional means (ex: by using drugs that
have the opposite effects to the symptoms)
Epidemiology ± the study of the incidence and distribution of diseases and of the control and
prevention of diseases
Etiology ± the study of the causation of diseases and disorders, especially of a specific disease
Iatrogenesis ± the causing or inducing of a disease by a physician or by medical treatment
Pathology ± the science of bodily diseases, the symptoms of a disease
Germ Theory ± Koch, Pasteur
Mechanistic model ± Descartes, machinery and individualistic
In Functional Terms Health means ± ³WKHVWDWHRIRSWLPXPFDSDFLW\RIDQLQGLvidual for the
HIIHFWLYHSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHUROHVDQGWDVNVIRUZKLFKKHKDVEHHQVRFLDOL]H
Reductionism in Medicine ± ³VKLIWHGIRFXVIURPVRFLHWDOSUREOHPVWRSDWKR-physiological
GLVWXUEDQFHcauses of disease lie in individual lifestyle and behaviours
Social Production of Illness ± Social Epidemiology and Environmental approach, human health
and illness are embedded in economic, social and cultural contexts (ex: social class,
economic cycles, socially produced stress, production processes and working conditions)
Social Medicine - conditions in society that produce illness and death, ex: SES, Gender roles etc.
Mode and Types of Analysis ± ,OOLFK¶s Analysis 3 types:
- Clinical Iatrogenesis ± ³SDLQVLFNQHVVDQGGHDWKUHVXOWIURPWKHSURYLVLRQRIPHGLFDOFDUH´
- Social Iatrogenesis ± ³KHDOWKSROLFLHVUHLQIRUFHDQLQGXVWULDORUJDQL]DWLRQZKLFKJHQHUDWHV
GHSHQGHQF\DQGLOOKHDOW
- Structural ± ³PHGLFDOO\VSRQVRUHGEHKDYLRXUDQGGHOXVLRQVUHVWULFWWKHYLWDODXWRQRP\RI
people by undermining their competency in JURZLQJXSFDULQJIRUHDFKRWKHUDQGDJLQ
- Illich blames industrialization, bureaucratization and monopoly power of medical
professional, and overmedicalization of life,
From Health to Well-being and Health Promotion ± shift from individual to societal
- Health ± the absence of disease and sickness, a state of complete physical, mental,
emotional and social well-bring
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Chapter 2: Health Care and Health Reforms: Trends and Issues
Comprehensive Coverage ± a core principle of medicare related to the fact that all services
deemed medically necessary are covered
Downloading ± the transfer of care from the publicly financed services sector to the voluntary
sector where uncompensated care is provided by informal care
Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBM) ± ³WKHFRQVFLHQWLRXVH[SOLFLWDQGMXGLFLRXVXVHRI
current-based evidence«WKDWLQWHJUDWHVWKHEHVWH[WHUQDOHYLGHQFHZLWKLQGLYLGXDOFOLQLFDO
H[SHUWLVHDQGSDWLHQWFKRLFH«LQPDNLQJGHFLVLRQVDERXWLQGLYLGXDOSDWLHQWV´H[WHQGHGWR
include both management and policy level decision-making in health care, evidence-based
health care aka Evidence-Based Decision-making (EBDM)
Knowledge Translation (KT) ± ³WKHH[FKDQJHV\QWKHVLVDQGHWKLFDOO\-sound application of
knowledge ± within a complex set of interactions among researchers and users ± to
accelerate the capture of the benefits of research for Canadians thru improved health, more
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transfer, knowledge utilization, and knowledge exchange
Marketization ± the direct transfer of costs from the public sector to the private sector
Medicare ± a system of universal, comprehensive, tax financed, portable hospitalization and
medical care insurance publicly administered on a non-profit basis
Portable Coverage ± this refers to the fact that Canadian citizens eligible for coverage under
medicare are covered regardless of the province in which they receive treatment
Regionalization ± a system of health system governance designed to increase local citizen
involvement in health care planning and service delivery, to facilitate greater integration
and coordination of the health care system, and to increase the efficiency and effectiveness
of the health care system
Universal Coverage ± one of the core principles of Medicare related to the fact that all citizens
are entitled to coverage by Medicare as a right of citizenship
Cost transfers: 2 main types
- Direct transferring ± from public to private, marketization
- Indirect transferring ± having family, friends, community organizations providing
uncompensated care to individuals in need, downloading
Medicare ± occurred first in Saskatchewan, 1946
1977 Federal-Provincial Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act
- ,WUHGXFHGIHGHUDOJRY¶WVKDUHRIFRVWRIPHGLFDUHIURPWR
- It uncoupled federal costs from provincial expenditures
- ,WOLPLWHGWKHJURZWKLQGLUHFWIHGHUDOJRY¶WLQFUHDVHVWRWKHUDWHRIJURZWKRI*13
- It provided $20/captia incentive for provinces to put more resources into community care
Democratic Model vs. Managerial Model (the CEO ± Canada now)
National Forum on Health (NFH)
- ,WFDOOHGIRUJRY¶WWRGHYHORSDQGXVHH[SDQGHGDQGLPSURYHGKHDOWKLQIRUPDWLRQDQG
health information systems as a way to improve quality and safety of health care system
- ,WSURSRVHGWKDWIHGHUDOJRY¶WFDVKWUDQVIHUVWRWKHSURYLQFHVEHWDUJHWHGWRJRDOVDJUHHG
to thru inter-governmental negotiations
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2000 Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) ± to excel, according to internationally accepted
standards of scientific excellence, in creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more
effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system
Evidence-Based Medicine ± the translation and application of research knowledge into medical
practice
Knowledge translation ± evidence-based decision making, commercialization of research
knowledge and technologies, target funding
The Romanow Commission 2001 ± Jean Chrétien, to review the health system, to engage public
GLDORJXHRQWKHIXWXUHKHDOWKFDUHLQ&DQDGDWRPDNHUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVWRIHGHUDOJRY¶W
- Reaffirm goals and means to achieve them: Sustainability, access, quality and
accountability
)LUVW0LQLVWHUV¶+HDOWK$FFRUGV2000, 2003, 2004 ± increased transparency and accountability,
Adverse events ± the unintended injuries or complications resulting in death, disability or
prolonged hospital stay that arise from health care management, most are preventable
Chapter 3: The Emerging Public Health System in Canada
Disease and Injury Prevention ± a range of initiative in various domains of social life,
including vaccination programs, investigation and outbreak control, workplace health and
safety regulations, cancer screening, and programs to encourage healthy behaviours, such
as anti-smoking, physical activity and bicycle helmet use
Health Promotion ± measures that enable people to improve and increase their control over
their health. Of all the dimensions of the public health system, health promotion most
FOHDUO\DUWLFXODWHVWKHSKLORVRSK\RIWKH³QHZ´SXEOLFKHDOWK+OHDKWSURPRWLRQLQYROYHV
VWUHQJWKHQLQJFRPPXQLW\KHDOWKVHUYLFHVMRLQWSDUWQHUVKLSVEZJRYW¶DQGFRPPXQLW\WR
solve pressing health problems and advocacy for health public policies (policies that
address SDOH: income, education, housing, affordable food, and safe environments)
Health protection ± a long standing core dimension of public health, health protection includes
inspections of restaurants, child care centers, nursing homes, and other public facilities,
and the monitoring and enforcement of water treatment and air quality standards
Health Status ± a description and/or measurement of the health of an individual or population at
a particular point in time against a prescribed set of standards
Health surveillance ± the collection, interpretation and communication of health data, covers
not only disease, but also health risk factors, health determinants, and other social
conditions that facilitate notification and response to occurrence of a public health threat
Population health assessment ± the evaluation of the health of the population, overall trends
and changes in health and comparisons of health within subgroups of the population,
population health also involves the development of theories, methods and measures of
population health status and quality of life indicators
Public health ± the science and art of promoting health, preventing disease, prolonging life and
improving quality of life thru the organized efforts of society
Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) ± social and economic factors that influence health
status of individuals, communities, and populations (ex: income, food, housing,
employment, social exclusion, and access to health services)
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