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HLTB21H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Epicanthic Fold, Castoroides, Bubonic Plague

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat
Study Guide

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Plagues and People Final examination Review
Diseases in North America---------------------------------------------------------------
9 million square kilometers
stretches 136 degrees of longitude
stretches 64 degrees in latitude
separated from old world by major oceans
Indigenous Diseases of North America
1. Animals
occurs world wide
get disease via infected animal
Today: see this most often in butchers and farmers
In the past, the hunters and gatherers were infected by this disease.
There are two main types of anthrax
1. respiratory tract is affected, lungs fail and often causes death
2. cutaneous form: where the skin is affected.
Pasteurellosis (Rabbit flu):
it generally cause pneumonia
it usually comes from domestic pet bites
redness and pain on wounded area and can lead to flu-like
death is unlikely
causes constipation, bloating, skin rash, fatigue, digestive
problems and diarrhea
infected via: water, food, mosquitoes
2. Insects
relapsing fever
contracted via ticks and lice
3. Soil
food gets easily contaminated
vomiting and diarrhea
neurological symptoms: paralysis and death
botox uses this bacteria: wrong amounts can cause death and
unthinkable long-term affects
4. Water
Human Diseases

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baring like land bridge
most likely origins of native Americans are Asians
1st nation= phenotypically more like Asians
little body hair
straight black hair
eyelid's epicanthic fold is similar
Natives came during pleistocene
During the last ice age,
sea levels dropped 300ft and scarborough campus covered by 1 mile high
of ice that stretched for 1300 miles
when sea levels dropped 150ft, the ice was 100-200 miles wide
Beringia was available from
> 50-3700y BP (before present)
> 25-1500y BP
it was an ice age (therefore) no food
north America was covered by 2 ice sheets
1. Laurentide : which was over middle of N.Am.
2. Cordillean : which was over the rockies
However, there was a corridor that existed in b/w the two
masses that allowed for passage
> 36-32000BP
> 28-20000 BP
> 13000 BP
When did people arrive?
> before 50000 BP
> 25000 BP
> more recently (which has a lot of evidence b/c of the
projectile points that were found --> NOT CALLED
arrow headsie// Clovis: a type of P.point.
Diseases in Founding People
1. Parasites
> lice
> worm
2.little to no infectious diseases
> because #'s were small (40-50)
which leads to less human-to-human transmissions
3.animal diseases
> mastodons, saber tooth tigers, giant cave bears, giant beavers and giant sloths
How do you identify people who had diseases?
Diseases in general, leave marks in bones.

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For example: osteoporosis, polio, arthritis, leprosy—hansen's disease
Leprosy: the upper jawbone gets thinner and thinner until the point you lose two
front incisors. The nasal cavities collapses.
4.cold climates: limits diseases
Disease of Maize Based Agriculture
Village 7000BC were established
ie// Cahokia: 40000 people
there existed sanitation problems
rodents and fleas and their associated diseases follow
BUT most adapted to their environments
Colombian contact (1492)
arrival of the Europeans and the African slaves
caused spread of 'exotic' diseases
spread smallpox via scabs put in blanketsthat were given to the unknowing
native children
immunologically defenseless
cultural disruption by weapons, ill treated slaves
European Diseases
> smallpox was the earliest and deadliest disease
> Espanola: 1519 was affected
> Disease was eradicated in 1956
> In general, it killed over 90% of its victims
> Measles
> extremely contagious
> Bubonic plague
> affected Europe in the middle ages (killed 50% of victims)
> In North America, (south western region; 1612-1619 in Florida,
spread to New England
> disease died until 1899 when it popped up in San Fransisco
> Malaria
> African slaves brought deadly falxiparum malaria
It is thought as that Malaria is a tropical disease that affects the
brain, heart and kidneys: when it affects kidney, you urinate black
to dark brown urine.
> British introduced depilitating vivax malaria
cold and hot stages occur with extreme sweating
19th century
Increased flows of immigration and filter invasion of diseases
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