term test 2 lecture notes.docx

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Management (MGH)
Xuefeng Liu

Lecture 8 Group – consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal; influence on others – manager and employee INFORMAL GROUPS – emerge naturally in response to common interest of organizational members STAGES of GROUP DEVELOPMENT Forming  storming  norming  performing  adjourning Forming: testing the waters; dependency Storming: conflicts; roles and responsibilities Norming: resolves issues from storming Performing: accomplish tasks Punctuated equilibrium model – a model of group development of how groups with deadline are affected by their first and crucial midpoint transitions PHASE 1 – first meeting to midpoint; agenda of task + little progress MIDPOINT TRANSITION – show progress + change and begins phase 2 PHASE 2 – adopt decisions from phase 2 and conclude with an activitiful final meeting Group Structure – characteristics of the stable organization of a group; eg. Size, diversit, roles Larger group = less satisfaction, less friendship and more conflict Group size and tasks, type of tasks: Additive: depends on the sum of the performance of individual group members; bigger groups is better Disjunctive tasks – dependent on the best group member; increase with size Conjunctive – limited by the poorest group member; smaller groups Diversity - surface diversity (age, gender) wears off with time and deep diversity can damage a group (attitudes about goal) Group norms: collective expectation that member of the social unit have against each other (dress, reward and performance) Roles- packages of norms that apply to particular group members; assigned roles and emergent roles Role ambiguity –when goal is unclear; cause: organizational factors, role sender, focal person. Outcome: dissatisfaction, action: define performance expectation and feedback Role conflict: incompatible role with member; types: intrasender, intersender, interrole, person-role Status: rank and social position accorded to members Formal systems: publicly identify those who have higher status (title and pay) Group Cohesiveness – attracted to member of the group; favorable terms Increase: threat from outside, accomplish goals and better communication, diversity decrease cohesiveness, larger groups decrease cohesiveness Cohesiveness is better when tasks need more interdependence Social loafing, tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort – free rider effect, sucker effect – people lower their effort when they think others are free riding Team is another word for groups at the organizational setting Lecture 9  Two types of dependence – information and effect  Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel and act – information dependence  Reliance on others due to reward and punishment – effect dependence  Social influence allows conformity – motives: compliance, identification and internalization  Compliance – conformity prompted by rewards – effect  Identification – conformity due to promotion of the norm are attractive and similar to oneself – information  Internalization – conformity due to beliefs, values and attitudes – internal rather than external forces  Socialization is the process by which people learn the attitude, knowledge and behaviors that are necessary to function as a group  Socialization involves four main content areas of learning: task, role, work group and organization  Person-job fit and person organization fit are strongly influenced by socialization; socialization leads to organization identification  Unrealistic expectations of a job lows satisfaction  Psychological contract is the beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization; breaching the contract = resentment  Methods of socialization: realistic job previews, employee orientation programs, socialization tactics and mentoring  The provision of a balanced realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of the job to job applicants; self selection is the process in which those who are not cut out for the job to withdraw  Employee orientation programs; designed to introduce the employee to their job and people they will be working with.  Socialization tactics is the manner in which organization structure the early experience of newcomers; collective (learning in groups) and individual (tailor made) tactics; formal (separating newcomer from regular employee) and informal (no separation); sequential vs random (steps in learning); fixed vs variable (time to assume new role); serial (regular show the way) vs disjunctive (not showing the way); divestiture (strip away confidence) vs investiture (not stripping away)  Institutionalization socialization – collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial and investiture; uniformed conformity; outcome: less conflict, more positive job satisfaction and etc  Individualized – individual, random, variable, disjunctive and divestiture  Mentoring- senior member guiding a junior member – career and psychosocial function  Career – exposure and visibility, sponsorship, developmental assignments, coaching and feedbacks  Psychosocial (self confidence) – role modeling, provide acceptance and confirmation, counseling  Proactive behavior: new comer playing an active role in socialization  Culture  norm  behavior  Culture is the true way of life and behavior of a company; can have sub cultures – many cultures strong culture example: hilti corp, boston pizza  Assets of strong culture: coordination ( facilitate communication), conflict resolution, financial success  Liabilities: resistance to change, culture clash  Contributors of the culture: the founder’s role and socialization  Grasping the culture: symbols, rituals (beach party and storues (questions will I get fired) Lectures 10+ 11  Decision making is the process of developing a commitement to some course of action; making a choice, process and requires resources  Problem exists when there is a gap between the desired and existing state  Well- structure problem: A program is the standard way of solving these problems; rules  Ill-structured problems: unique problems; can entail high risks  Process of problem solving: identify the problem  search for relevant info  develop alternative solutions  evaluate alternative solutions  choose best solution  implement  monitor and evaluate chosen solution  Perfect rationality: completely informed and logical; economic person characteristics: gather info without cost, perfectly logical and makes decision only for ecom. Gains  do not exist  Bounded rationality  decision strategy based on limited info and time constraints; framing refers to aspect of presentation of info assumed by the decision maker  Cognitive biases: tendencies to acquire info in a particular way that are prone to error  Too little info: not enough info to make a good decision: cognitive bias: too confident or rely on what is available (confirmation bias: confirm with self opinion)  Too much info: information overload: might omit info  Anchoring effect: decision makers do not adjust their estimate from some initial estimate that serves as anchor  Satisficing means that the decision maker establishes an adequate level of acceptability for a solution to a problem and then screens solutions until they find one that exceeds this level  Risky decision making: view from risk – risky decisions and view from gain – conservatives  PR decision maker can evaluate a decision with calmness while bounded encounter: justification (for faulty decisions – sunk cost; escalation of commitment [tendency to devote investment in a
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