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MGHB02H3 Study Guide - Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Samantha Montes

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Personality and Learning 10/13/2014
What is Personality?
Personality: the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an
individual interacts with his or her environment
Personality and Organizational Behavior
Dispositional approach: individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their
attitudes and behaviors
Situational approach: characteristics of the organizational setting influence people’s attitudes and
behavior
Interactionist approach: individuals’ attitudes and behavior are a function of both dispositions and
the situation
Trait activation theory: traits lead to certain behaviors only when the situation makes the need for
the trait salient
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Extraversion
Emotional stability/Neuroticism
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness to experience
Locus of Control
Locus of Control: a set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or
external factors
Self-monitoring
Self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in
social settings and relationships
Self Esteem
Self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
Behavioral plasticity theory: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external
and social influences than those who have high self-esteem
New Developments in Personality and OB
Positive and Negative Affectivity
Positive affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light
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Negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative
light
Proactive Personality
Proactive behavior: taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones
Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative
across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment
General Self-Efficacy
General self-efficacy: a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform
successfully in a variety of challenging situations
Core Self-Evaluations
Core self-evaluation: a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the
evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth
What is Learning?
Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or experience
What do employees learn?
Practical skills
Intrapersonal skills
Cultural awareness
Operant learning theory
Operant learning: learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve
certain consequences
Increasing the Probability of Behavior
Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviors
Positive reinforcement
Positive reinforcement: the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the
probability of some behavior
Negative reinforcement
Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability
of some behavior
Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement
Confusing rewards with reinforcements
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