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MGHD27H3 Study Guide - List Of Wrestling Observer Newsletter Awards, Social Capital, Collectivism

Management (MGH)
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Chapter 9 Leadership
What is Leadership?
Leadership: The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal
achievement of others in an organizational context. Has a strong effect on an
organizations strategy, success, and survival.
Effective leadership exerts influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by
enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction, and commitment of the workforce.
Strategic Leadership: Leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision,
maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes
that will create a viable future for the organization. Can provide an organization
with a sustainable competitive advantage by helping it compete in turbulent and
unpredictable environments and by exploiting growth opportunities.
Formal leaders (e.g., managers, executives) are expected to influence others, and are
given specific authority to direct employees. However, the presence of a formal
leadership role is no guarantee that there is leadership.
Since informal leaders do not have formal authority, they must rely on being well
liked or being perceived as highly skilled to exert influence.
Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits: Individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability,
and personality.
Traits associated with leadership effectiveness include: intelligence, energy, self-
confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity,
and need for achievement. However, connections between these traits and good
leaders are not very strong.
Three of the big five personality dimensions (agreeableness, extraversion, and
openness to experience) are related to leadership behaviours.
The relationship between intelligence and leadership is considerably lower than

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previously thought.
Limitations of the Trait Approach
It is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the
opportunity for leadership produces the traits.
We have little information about how to train and develop leaders and no way to
diagnose failures of leadership (what do dominant, intelligent, or tall people do to
influence others successfully?)
The trait approach to leadership fails to consider the situation in which leadership
Traits alone are not sufficient for successful leadership. Traits are only a
precondition for certain actions that a leader must take to be successful (i.e.,
possessing the appropriate traits for leadership make it more likely that certain
actions will be taken and will be successful).
The trait approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting.
The Behaviour of Leaders
Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration: The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal
concern and respect for employees. The considerate leader is seen as friendly and
egalitarian, expresses appreciation and support, and is protective of group welfare.
Initiating Structure: The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal
attainment. The structuring leader clearly defines and organizes his/her role and the
roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules the work to be done, and
assigns employees to particular tasks.
A leader could be high, low, or average in one or both dimensions.
The Consequences of Consideration and Structure
Consideration and initiating structure both contribute positively to employees
motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness.
Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader
satisfaction and job satisfaction), motivation, and leader effectiveness.

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Initiating structure tends to be more strongly related to leader job performance and
group performance.
The effects of consideration and initiating structure often depend on characteristics
of the task, the employee, and the setting in which work is performed.
oWhen employees are under a high degree of pressure due to deadlines,
unclear tasks, or external threat, initiating structure increases satisfaction
and performance.
oWhen the task itself is intrinsically satisfying, the need for high
consideration and high structure is generally reduced.
oWhen the goals and methods of performing the job are very clear and certain,
consideration should promote employee satisfaction, while structure might
promote dissatisfaction.
oWhen employees lack knowledge as to how to perform a job, or the job itself
has vague goals or methods, consideration becomes less important, while
initiating structure takes on additional importance.
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
Leader Reward Behaviour: The leaders use of compliments, tangible benefits,
and deserved special treatment.
Leader Punishment Behaviour: The leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable
task assignments and the active withholding of rewards.
oNon-contingent punishment behaviour is related to unfavourable outcomes.
Leader reward and punishment behaviour contingent on employee behaviour and
performance is positively related to employees perceptions (e.g., trust in supervisor),
attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), and behaviour (e.g.,
effort, performance, organizational citizenship behaviour).
Leader reward and punishment behaviour is related to employee attitudes and
behaviours because it leads to more positive perceptions of justice and lower role
Situational Theories of Leadership
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