detailed, organized LANGUAGE notes

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28 Feb 2011
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LEC02 [Chapter 10]Language
The Building Blocks of Language
What are the elements that make up spoken language?
Language can be broken down into elements at several levels.
Concentrating on Spoken language
The players talked to the fans
Broken down into: (smallest to biggest)Phonemes, morphemes, words,
phrases, sentences
Phonemes are the smallest significant units of sound in a language
Morphemes are smallest unit of meaning, brought together to make words
Words become phrases and then grammar and into sentences
Phonemes
Smallest significant units of sound in a language
How do we produce sound? In a way that we can understand
Takes energy
Where does it all start? In our throats, the changing columns of moving air.
Producing air pressure that sends air out of the mouth.
Columns of air carry sound waves, not actual waves, waves move faster
Sounds are made through lips, tongue, vocal cords
Differences between p and b as well as between s and z is voicing (vibration of
vocal cords)
Bilabial Plosives make the sounds for p & b;
bilabial uses both lips are used to make the sound
plosives means that theres a mini explosion.
Computers now can manipulate the onset on voicing electronically
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Language can be broken down into elements at several levels.  smallest significant units of sound in a language. In our throats, the changing columns of moving air. Producing air pressure that sends air out of the mouth.  columns of air carry sound waves, not actual waves, waves move faster.  sounds are made through lips, tongue, vocal cords.  differences between p and b as well as between s" and z" is voicing (vibration of vocal cords)  alveolar fricatives makes the sounds for s" & z": alveolar the tongue reaches to the top at the teeth, fricatives suggests that there is friction, sounds like sound paper. Friction sounds: difference: s" does not voiced, not vibrating, but z" vibrates the vocal cords (throat vibrations) There are 40 phonemes in english, yet only 26 letters to capture these sounds.  some letters can stand for different phonemes: ex. O in hot and cold (confusing for esl)

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