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Midterm

PSYB32H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Intellectual Disability, Normal Distribution, Mental Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide
Midterm

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION:DEFINITIONAL AND HISTORICAL
CONSIDERATIONS, AND CANADA'S MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM
understand what makes up abnormal behaviour
Psychopathology > the field concerning the nature and development of abnormal
behaviour, thoughts, and feelings
WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR ?
Abnormal Behaviour > characteristics like statistical infrequency, violation of
norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness
STATISTICAL INFREQUENCY
abnormal behaviour is infrequent in the general population
normal curve > places most people in the middle as far as a characteristic
few ppl fall at either extreme
normal = one does not deviate from average
we use stat. infreq. to diagnose mental retardation
VIOLATIONS OF NORMS
Consider behaviours that violate social norms, threatens, or makes others who
are observing anxious
violation of norms depend on the cultural norms
prostitutes violate social norms but we dont view these people as an
abnormality
PERSONAL SUFFERING
behaviour is seen as abnormal if it creates great distress to the person going
through it
example, anxiety or depression
DISABILITY OR DYSFUNCTION
a disability is an impairment in an important area of life due to an abnormality
example, substance-use disorders
a phobia can cause distress and disability
UNEXPECTEDNESS
distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected
responses to environmental stressors
something that is out of proportion... worrying vs extreme anxiety
(MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS)

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Clinicians > authorized to provide psychological services
Clinical psychologists > one who has their phd, psyd, 4-7 years of graduate study
5 things to be a psych.
1. interpersonal relationships
2. assessment and evaluation
3. intervention and consultation
4. research
5. ethics and standards
2 things to learn > assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders &
psychotherapy
Psychiatrists > MD degree and postgrad training = residency > physical exams,
diagnosing medical problems, prescribe drugs
Psychoanalysts > specialized training at psychoanalytic institute, up to 10 yrs @
school
Social workers > MWS degree
Counselling psychologists > less emphasis on research but similar to graduate
training in clinical psych and more psychopathology
compare the history of psychopathology across centuries
HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
many of those who studied the troubled mind thought that deviancy reflected the
wrath of the gods or a possession by demons
EARLY DEMONOLOGY
demonology > an evil being like the devil is in a person and is controlling their
body
deviancy was thought to be possession of the person by bad spirits
exorcism > what they used as treatment to cast out evil spirits w/ ritualistic
chanting or torture
ex. prayer, noisemaking, forcing them to drink brews, flogging (whipping),
or starvation to get the body back to its norm
trepanning > to create a surgical opening in the skull
thought to cure epilepsy, headaches, & psychological disorders that were
brought by demons
demons way of escaping
from SIBERIA
SOMATOGENESIS
Somatogenesis > something wrong with the soma or physical body, disturbs
thought and action
Psychogenesis > belief that disturbance has psychological origins
Hippocrates (father of med) believed that gods sent these diseases as
punishment

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Mental disorders into 3 categories
1. mania
2. melancholia
3. phrenitis (brain fever)
Believed there needed to be a balance of 4 fluids
1. blood
2. black bile
3. yellow bile
4. phlegm
an imbalance produces disorders and a personality style
sluggish/dull = phlegm and a phlegmatic temperament
melancholy/sadness = black bile
irritability and anxiousness = yellow bile
changeable temperament = blood
THE DARK AGES AND DEMONOLOGY
PERSECUTION OF WITCHES
witchcraft = heresy and denial of God, from satan
burning was a normal method to drive out a "demon"
WITCHCRAFT AND MENTAL ILLNESS
mentally ill = you are a witch
the dunking test = if the woman did not drown, she was thought to be in
relations w the devil, if she drowns then she is not a witch... no-win solution
"Lunacy trials" to determine ones sanity
strange behaviour was linked to physical illness or injury or emotional
shock
DEVELOPMENT OF ASYLUMS
Asylums > (once known as leprosariums) to confine and care of the mentally ill
disturbed ppl and beggars
beggars were seen as a social problem
BETHLEHEM AND OTHER EARLY ASYLUMS
bedlam > term for a place or scene of wild uproar and confusion
viewing violent patients were seen as entertainment
medical treatments were painful
Benjamin Rush believed that mental disorders were caused by excess
blood in the brain
treatment = draw out large amounts of blood or he thought they would be
cured by frightening them
MORAL TREATMENT
Philippe Pinel
treated patients as sick humans rather than monsters which became
easier to handle
provided treatment to those in the upper class, so those in the lower
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