Textbook - Midterm.docx

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
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Main Teaching Points:
Module 1.1: Introduction to Neuropsychology
1. The 10% Myth
2. What is Neuropsychology
3. Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology
4. The Mind-Body Problem
Module 1.2: The Recent History of Neuropsychology
1. Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions
2. Focus on the Neuron
3. The Brain Mappers
4. Functional Neurosurgery
5. The Paradigm Shift in Neuropsychology
Module 1.1 Introduction to Neuropsychology
The 10% Myth
Myth: Humans use only 10% of their brain
Overinterpretation
Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens & Karl Lashley animals were able to perform basic function after
almost 90% of their brains were damaged
What is Neuropsychology?
Neuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain
Assumes that an individual’s behaviour is at least in part the result of the activity in the brain
Types of Neuropsychologists:
1. Clinical Neuropsychology the branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological assessment,
management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury
2. Experimental Neuropsychology the branch of neuropsychology concerned with how human behaviour
arises from brain activity, which includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be
explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components
Aka. Cognitive Neuropsychology / Cognitive Neuroscience
Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology
A. Human thoughts and behaviours were not always attributed to the brain
1. Empedocles
o All matter was composed of four elements: fire, air, water, earth
o Cardiac / Cardiocentric Hypothesis: Heart was the source of human behaviour
2. Aristotle
o Heart is normally very active and warm source of thought and sensation
o Brain served as a radiator, cooling the blood
B. Cephalocentric Hypothesis / Brain Hypothesis
o Hippocrates / Galen
o Brain is responsible for human behaviour
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The Mind-Body Problem
Rene Descartes
“Reflexive” Theory of the control of behaviour – the flow of “animal spirits” through “valvules” within
nervous tissue filaments
Reflexive behaviour caused by external stimuli (animal spirits)
Accounted for some involuntary behaviours (withdrawing one’s hand from a hot stimulus) but
could not account for voluntary behaviour
Believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational,
decision-making soul
Pineal gland was single and surrounded by CSF
Cavities of CSF were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for action voluntary action would
produce small movements of the pineal gland, resulting in the release of animal spirits throughout
the body and producing movement of the body
Influenced by technologies of that time: hydraulics
Dualism the mind and body are separate but interacting entities
Mind and body do interact in a causal fashion without specifying how
Mind and body function in parallel without interacting
Mind can affect the body but the body cannot affect the mind
Monism mind and body are unitary
Module 1.2 The Recent History of Neuropsychology
Year 1990 1990s would be the decade of the brain
Neuropsychology draws from a number of very established disciplines: anthropology, biology, physiology,
neurology
Cataloging the Effects of Lesions
A. Contributors to “Passive Role of Brain”
1. Jean-Cesar Lagallois
o Lesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing discovery of
respiratory center within the medulla
o First widely accepted function to be localized within the brain
2. Charles Bell + Francois Magendie
o Studied the nerves that exited the spinal cord dorsal roots (nerves that leave the spinal
cord on the back of the spinal cord) had sensory functions; ventral roots (nerves that leave
the spinal cord on the front) were responsible for motor functions
Functional Segregation of spinal cord set stage to examine whether or not the
brain was also organized into separate sensory and motor components
B. Functional and Anatomical Segregation
1. Franz Joseph Gall
o Stated that there were 27 distinct cognitive abilities (faculties) that could be localized on
the cortex of the human brain were poorly defined faculties: love of friends, wisdom,
acquisitiveness, destructiveness, etc
o Cognitive skills, such as mathematical ability, memory for words, and spoken language,
were mediated by separate areas of the brain
o Believed that the cortex behaved like muscles, in that increased size of an area was
associated with increased function phrenology
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Increase in size could result in a deformation of the skull which then could be
measured empirically by using a technique called cranioscopy
Phrenology the measurements of the skull and pronouncement on personality
2. Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens
o Strong critic against phrenology phrenology was at best subjective and that all analyses
were performed post hoc
o Firm believer of empirical method lesioning techniques to study corresponding effects on
behaviour
Cerebellum coordinated movement
Medulla vital functions
Observed that sometimes following lesions, function may be restored
o Equipotentiality cortex functioned as a whole and that there was no functional
specialization within the cortex
3. Friedrich Goltz
o Believed in Flourens’ equipotentiality performed a number of experiments involving the
removal of the cortex in dogs and cats and observed that only the size of the lesion, not the
location of the lesion, affected the behaviour of the nonhuman animal
4. David Ferrier behavioural observations of decorticate dogs and monkeys were inconsistent with
the position of cortical equipotentiality
o Suggested that the results of the lesion experiments were consistent with the localization of
sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex
5. Gustav Fritsh & Eduard Hitzig
o Demonstrated that the frontal cortex of the dog was essential for the production of normal
movement
o Overturned theory of cortical equipotentiality
Gall was right but for wrong reason
Goltz and Fluorens used right techniques but came to the wrong conclusions
6. Paul Broca
o Language first higher cognitive function that was successfully localized
o Role of frontal cortex in the production of speech
“Tan” – circumscribed lesion of left frontal lobe resulted in the incapability of speech
production
Amphemia / Broca’s Aphasia lost the ability for speech but retained the ability to
understand language; articulate speech was affected
7. Carl Wernicke
o There was an auditory center (Wernicke’s area) in the temporal lobes that, when damaged,
would result in an individual who could still produce speech but would be incapable of using
words correctly and be unable to understand the speech of others (Wernicke’s Aphasia)
o There should be a number of different aphasias that would produce different symptoms
based on the site and extent of the lesions
o The total or global aphasia (a complete inability to understand or produce language) would
result from lesions of both Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas
Focus on the Neuron
Anatomical Studies
Challenges that had to be overcome to study the cellular constituents of the brain:
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Document Summary

Module 1. 1: introduction to neuropsychology: the 10% myth, what is neuropsychology, heart, mind, and brain: the early history of neuropsychology, the mind-body problem. Module 1. 1: introduction to neuropsychology: the 10% myth. [type the document title: what is neuropsychology, heart, mind, and brain: the early history of neuropsychology, the mind-body problem. Module 1. 2: the recent history of neuropsychology: cataloguing the effects of lesions, focus on the neuron, the brain mappers, functional neurosurgery, the paradigm shift in neuropsychology. Myth: humans use only 10% of their brain. Marie-jean-pierre flourens & karl lashley animals were able to perform basic function after almost 90% of their brains were damaged. Neuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain. Assumes that an individual"s behaviour is at least in part the result of the activity in the brain. Reflexive theory of the control of behaviour the flow of animal spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments.

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