Social Psychology Study Notes.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

1 Social Psychology Chapter 1: Intro Social Psychology: study in which peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people they focus on the individual in a social situation (insert history of social psychology) ABC’s of social psychology: Affect emotions, feelings and mood Behavior verbal/non-verbal action Cognitionthought, sensation, perception, processing, memory Chapter 2: Methodology Methods 1) Correlational Method -Can never conclude a CAUSATION, but can tell us the RELATIONSHIP (ex. What is the relation between children’s aggression & how much violent tv they watch?) -Can have 2 DV’s (ex. Ice cream sales correlate with drowning) -No manipulation -correlation coefficient: how well you can predict outcome of one variable based on another (ex. How well you can predict people’s weight from their height) *problem with correlation: can never say A causes B 2) Hypothetico/Deductive/ Lab Experimental Method -Can conclude CAUSATION -IV and DV -Manipulation of IV to cause DV *example: More bystanders in an emergency causes less people to react Validity -P-Value: # of how likely it is that the results are by chance and not the IV; result causal if the probability of results being chance is less than 5 in 100 -Internal Validity: ensuring nothing other than the IV can affect the DV -External Validity: results of a study can be generalized to target group *to generalize situations: mundane realism (experiment is similar to real-life situations) & psychological realism (to make sure psychological processes in the experiment occurs in every day life…use cover story [give participant a false description of the study’s purpose]) *to generalize across people: replication (repeating study using different subjects and or settings to get the same results) Quasi-Experimental Design -IV not manipulated; no control, no random assignment *example: “Theory of Mind” M&Ms experiment; sticks in bag vs no stick in bag Cross Cultural Research -IV’s and Dv’s must be understood same way in different cultures 2 Field Experiments -Same as lab (controls IV) except it’s conducted in natural settings *problem: difficult to control extraneous variables (since it’s in natural setting there could be many people outside to interfere) Chapter 3: Social Cognition Automatic Cognition (Effortless, unintentional thinking) 1. Perception (becoming aware of the senses) Ex. Pre-attentive Process (rapid processing of complex scene ie. You would immediately look at a gun first in a crowded room/rapid =less than 250ms…something that catches your eye) Ex.2 Gaze detection (where you look first naturally) 2. Processing -Encoding (selecting information from the environment & store in memory) -Visual Attention (what we pay attention to ex. Gorilla suit during BBall game; attended to boys playing the game & didn’t notice gorillahow powerful visual attention is) -Schema (function: mental structures used to organize info about objects/people & to fill in the gaps of our knowledge to reduce ambiguity ex. Person in dark alley way asks for your wallet, you can fill in the gap by matching previously learned schemas & MAKING SURE YOUR SCHEMA IS ACCURATE) *“Shooter” experiment participants were likely to pull the trigger when the person in a picture was black, whether or not he was holding a gun; shooter bias= people made few errors when a black person was holding a gun, but most errors shooting an unarmed black person *As memory guides: more likely to remember info consistent with their schemas (ex. White Kids remembered positive behaviors of their white classmates, and negative behaviors by natives) & memory errors are consistent with their schemas (ex. Did not remember details from Jack & Barbara story tried to fill in the blanks with their schema) *Perseverance effectpeople’s beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even after evidence supporting these beliefs is wrong (ex. Participants who received the “success” scores and then found out later that info was bogus= still believed they’d succeeded and do well on next test; those “failure” scores “” = believe they did poorly and do poorly next time) *Self-fulfilling prophecy expect what person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which in turn causes the expected person to behave in the expected way (ex. Men looking at pretty photo of lady before talking on the phone, he is nice and charming= person on phone was nice and charming; men at ugly photo, he is rude = lady is rude b/c he was rude to her) 3. Storage -Semantic Network (Mental representations of clusters of interconnected information) 3 -prototype theory of categorization (objects classified based on similarity to prototype ie a chair [has legs, functional purpose]…a bean bag is a chair, a stool is a chair) -Spreading activation (thinking about one concept will “activate” a closely related object ex. Canarybirdanimals…would take longer to words like “computer” if starting from canary) 4. Heuristics (mental shortcuts- efficient but error prone) -Judgmental Heuristic (make judgments quickly and efficiently): *Availability Heuristic (base judgment b/c it comes to mind ie people are asked what is more common, murder or TB- they say murder is more common than T.B b/c of news media-, where actually T.B is more common) *Representative Heuristic (people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case ex. Thinking a woman who speaks French is from France) -Base-Rate info (frequency of members of different categories in the population ex. Go to Germany, assume white-girl serving you coffee is from Germany, b/c most residences are from Germany) *Anchoring & Adjust (using the first answer that came to them as an “anchor” ex. Bargainer suggests price to be 50$, so you suggest price around that anchored suggestion, like 45$) Controlled Cognition (Effortful Thinking) 1. Counterfactual Thinking/ Simulation: what might have been if we hadn’t “just missed” avoiding a negative event (ex. “I could have gone on that plane if I was a second earlier!”people who miss a flight by 3 min are more upset and simulate than ones who miss by 30min) *hypothetical scenarios 2. Algorithms (step by step thinking process for answer- successful, more work) 3. Accessibility (extent to which concepts are forefront of your mind) -Priming (recent experiences increase accessibility of a schema, making it more likely that you will use this info to interpret new events) *Example: reading book on mentally ill patients (subject is forefront of your mind), then someone bothers you shouting, and then you think to yourself that person is mentally ill -Thought suppression suppressed thoughts become HYPER accessible, therefore you must think about the unwanted memory to suppress it -Overconfidence barriertoo much confidence in their judgments; usually not as correct as they think they are Chapter 5: Self Self-Concept (our knowledge about who we are ie roles, qualities ex I am smart) Self-Awareness (act of thinking of ourselves as distinct from the environment/others) Self-Complexity (depth and complexity of self-concept ex. What areas we are smart in) 4 Mark “Rouge” Test (marking red on animal & they reach for the mark on their face in the mirror…orangutans recognize self, not baboonsin humans, self rec develops around 1 ½ years of age; becomes more complex over time ie child is concrete [sex, hobbies] “I’m a boy with brown hair and my uncle’s name is Bob”) Working-self concept: recent thoughts about yourself/ primed aspects of self coming out ex. Go from studious sarah @ school to cooking sarah @ home Self-concept centrality: some aspects of self concept are personally more important to you than others ex. You value being funny more than smart Consequences -Self-Evaluative maintenance: Two people in a relationship each aim to keep themselves feeling good psychologically throughout a comparison process to the other person *threatened if domain is central (distance yourself from relationship, or undervalue domain to feel better)& it’s a close friend, proud if it is not & if it’s a close friend (closer you are to someone, closer you associate yourself with that person) *level of threat/proud depends how central domain is & how close you are to the person -Self-handicapping: you anticipate you’ll fail on central domain, so you set yourself up to fail to blame situation (ex. You know you won’t do well on test whether you study or not, so you go out and get drunk, then receive a Cfeel better by blaming you were out late so that’s why you got a C, rather than studying a lot and still receiving a C) -Self-verification: need to seek confirmation of one’s self concept from close ones – only holds for central traits (whether bad or good, we want people to see them) ex. Stress to husband “I’m a slob”…so you make sure he sees by being a slob in front of him Levels of the self 1. Minimal self aware we are distinct from the environment (double stimulation; can feel yourself touch other objects) 2. Objectified selfcapacity to serve as the object of one’s own (or other’s attention); mark test 3. Symbolic selfto form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language (ex. I am funny) Functions of self 1. organizational function -self-schema: structures used to organize their knowledge about themselves & that influences what they notice, think about and remember (ex. Sarah and Emily play volleyball and watch movies; Sarah will remember volleyball more because she’s athletic, Emily will remember movies more because she’s an actress) -self-reference effect: to remember info better if they relate it to themselves (result of 20 marks test- they remembered words better that were used to describe themselves rather than those same words used to describe their friends) -implicit personality/association test results: people who respond rapidly and committing few errors= they know themselves well (can easily say what trait they relate to) 2. Executive function -self regulation: strategies used to control your behavior 5 *delay of gratificationthose who delay gratification result in higher verbal & math scores, greater cognitive & social competence, greater ability to concentrate & cope with stress Bing study: either wait 30 min to get 4 oreos or immediately eat 2 oreos & not get two more rd *self distancing recall bad events through 3 person (fly on the wall-will give you a better perspective on the situation & how to handle it better next time) *emotion regulation suppression (response focused [you already felt emotion])…doesn’t work & is the MOST effortful Reappraisal (thinking about situation differently- antecedent focused [before you feel emotion]) *girl in oreo study delayed gratification through this strategy Situation selection (avoiding situation that you know will make you feel bad [antecedent focused]) Global Self concept: I am ____ Contextualized: I am ____ when ____ (buffers negative feelings after failure ex. I fail when I am tired but not when I am awake!) Possible Selves Ideal selves we want to become Neutral selves we could become Selves we are afraid of becoming Independent view of self defining oneself in terms of own thoughts and actions *Western cultures have this view Interdependent view defining oneself in terms of other’s (family, friends) actions, thoughts *Asians have this view; view themselves in terms of communal qualities such as being kind Knowing Ourselves through Introspection Causal theories: theories about the causes of one’s own behavior (ex. I bet I’m in a bad mood because I’m tired) Knowing ourselves through our own Behavior Intrinsic motivation: engage in activity b/c we enjoy it Extrinsic: engage b/c of external rewards overjustification effect: view behavior as caused by extrinsic when really it was caused by intrinsic (ex. Unknowingly loved to play the piano, parents then pay you to keep playing, you now think you play to earn money) *Task contingent: rewards given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done (ex. ^) *Performance contingent rewards: rewards based on how well you did a task (ex. Grades)… most effective in increasing interest! Knowing ourselves through Social Interaction Looking glass self: we see ourselves through the eyes of other people and incorporate their views into our self-concept 6 Knowing ourselves through comparing Downward comparison: compare ourselves with people (if we don’t feel bad about that person’s negative outcome) who are worse than we are- we can use “past” vs “present” self Upward: comparing someone better than us (makes us feel bad unless we see the potential to become like them) Self discrepancy theory: distress when there’s a difference in the selves (actual self does not meet ideal self=depression, actual self does not meet ought self [what others think you should be]= anxiety) Self-Esteem 1. Global self esteem: typical level of esteem (average evaluation of self) 2. State self esteem: fluctuates based on situation (ex. I feel good about myself right now) 3. Implicit (unconscious, associate how “good” you are…example is IAT test) -sociometer theory: internal monitor of social acceptance/rejection -perceived regard: how we believe we are viewed by others *friends “other view (how you s
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