PSYB10 - Final Exam Review (very thorough)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Introduction to Social Psychology 1 What is social psychology The scientific study of how an individuals thoughts feelings and behaviours are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people 2 Broadly speaking in what ways are we affected by other people When making decisions we may be influenced by what other people may think as the ultimate or best choice We may be influenced to act a certain way so that we can fit in the norm or desired group in the social context 3 How does social psychology differ from common sense approaches to study these issuesWhat limitations do common sense approaches have that are remedied by a more scientific approach Social psychology may seem like information that one may have known or experienced however in many cases a person must be careful of two properties that this information may provide 1 Conformation bias and 2 Hindsight Bias learning something may make it seem obvious In addition many common sense proverbs tend to contradict each other and differ across cultural borders 4 How does social psychology differ from sociology Social psychology uses the scientific method and has an individualized focus and examines both internal and external aspects of the person It also acknowledges the importance of both objective reality and subjective perceptionsResearch Methods in Social Psychology 1 What is the scientific methodWhat are the steps in the scientific method The scientific method is a series of steps taken to achieve results to an experiment which tests a question There are five steps to this process 1 Hypothesis 2 Operationalize 3 Measure 4 Evaluate 5ReviseReplicateReport2 Why is it necessary to replicate findings in science It is important to replicate findings so that the results are thorough and are not caused by external factors other than what is being tested3 What is a theoryWhat is a hypothesisWhat is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis A theory is an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events Theories not only summarize they also imply testable predictions called hypotheses A hypothesis is a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events4 Why must a scientific hypothesis be testable If it is not testable it is difficult to prove any possible relationships to the question in doubt 5 What is socially desirable respondingWhy is it a concern for research using selfreport measures Socially desirable responding is when one responds to questions for an experimental process with answers which are regarded as socially correct normal or desired These answers do not conform with the persons beliefs but to society These kinds of responses create biases 6 Why are operational definitions necessaryOperational definitions are important because they define how the variables used in the experiment will be measured or manipulated The methods of manipulated the variable must be practical ethical and cost effective If a variable cannot be manipulated then an experiment has no function 7 What is observational researchGive an example Research conducted based on the observations of a study group eg watching children play with a new toy on the market 8 What is a surveyWhy are representative samples useful in survey research A survey is a process for gathering information without detailed verification on the activity being examined A representative sample is useful in research because a survey cannot possibly be used on every person in the population By choosing a random sample and apply the survey process on the sample one can use proportions to make a statement about the overall population 9 What two pieces of information are implied by a correlation coefficient A correlational coefficient if there is a positive or negative association between two or more variables 10 What does it mean to say that is a positive correlation between variables A positive correlation is when r0 and that as one variable increases in strength the other given variable increases as well
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