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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Summer

Description
PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Lecture 1 - Good personality – global quality. Often contrasted with attractiveness o Blind date – nice but some attractive elements that won’t be that great o A lot of personality = lively, extraverted - Working theories about how many types of people there are - Measures are more empirically validated - Personality: organized and relatively enduring set of psychological traits and mechanisms that influences a person’s interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment o Organized – traits and mechanisms that work in relationship to each other and work together as one unit o Relatively enduring – over time a person is going to exhibit these particular qualities and over certain situations; something that comes and goes is not an aspect of their personality o Traits and mechanisms – way person interacts with environment o Interactions – only visible when interacting with their environment and the way they adapt to their environment - Grand theories of personality – explain everything about a persons personality (e.g., Freud) - Building Blocks of Personality o Trait/Dispositional  Ways in which individuals differ from each other  Focuses on number and nature of fundamental traits  Goals = identify and measure most important ways individuals differ and where the individuals differences came from and how they develop over time; also important to consider the interaction between traits and situations o Biological  Physical elements and biological systems in body that influence or are influence by behaviors, thoughts, and feelings  Behavioral genetics of personality; what portion is due to genetics vs. environment  Psychophysiology of personality; neurological factors  Evolutionary personality psychology; behaviors evolved adaptations, universal in behavior as common focus, and how do we deal with individual differences o Self and Identity  Deals with aspects of the self and the relationship of self to others  Self-concept – how we conceive ourselves  Self-esteem  Self-control  Personal and social identity- aspects that define you as a person, social identity are aspects that define you as part of the dif groups you belong to, ex. gender  Interesting trend: identity is like a story; things that we identify as impactful in having formed our self-concept  narrative approach o Intrapsychic  Mental mechanisms that influence behaviour, thought, emotions – subconscious  Outside conscious awareness?  Look at entire system and how the parts work together  Classic, modern versions of Freud’s work on structure and dynamics of psyche o Regulatory and motivational  Opposite of intrapychic approach  Looking at things under peoples control – how the regulate aspects of the self  Mechanisms that allow for people to deal with their environment for better efficiency o Cognitive-Experiential  How we perceive and process information about the self and others; how we construct our experience  Includes:  Locus of control – extent to which we believe we can impact our environment; external locus – things that happen are a result of luck and out of their control, internal locus – can affect change in your domains; way people process information ; stable personality trait – doesn’t change too often  Attributional style – explain why things happen  Learned helplessness – beginning situations where you’ve tried to help yourself but it didn’t work; state of having a sense of stability and continuity over time  Optimism / pessimism; what you believe your outcomes will be  Goal-setting – what mechanisms are used, are they effective and what outcomes you want to achieve and what steps would you take to get there o Social and Cultural  Assumes that personality affects, is affected by, cultural and social contexts; personality can affect the environment and contexts that that person enters; changes over time;  Individual differences within cultures—how personality plays out in the social sphere  Sex, gender differences and in personality processes, traits; going to differ what culture you look at as well o Adjustment - Domain integration; o Domains of knowledge complementary, not conflicting o The different domains seek answers to different questions o Challenging, interesting research often happens at boundaries of domains o Progress toward integration requires connections PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Notes on Chapter 1: What am I? Understanding the Building Blocks of Personality What is Personality Psychology?  Personality psychology = scientific study of what makes us who we are; study of individual differences: for identifying ways in which people are both similar and different and explaining how they became that way  Although we can study the individual elements that make up human personality, the elements come together to create a whole person in a way that is not reducible to its parts The Building blocks of Personality  Individual parts that make a person whole are those which are described below as well as social and environmental forces that impact on our personalities Traits o A person’s typical way of thinking, feeling, and acting in various situations, at different times o We may be born with some physiology that makes us more likely to develop some characteristics, however, there are many other characteristics that we can develop from our socialization and from personal experiences o Traits will be consistent across our lives and expressed in all sorts of ways Genetics o We may inherit specific personality characteristics o Genetics: study of how genes and environment affect personality and behavior o Even though personality variable have a genetic component EVERY one of them also has an environmental component as well Neuroscience o Study of how our brain and nervous system affect personality and behavior through the study of bodily responses, brain structure, brain activity and biochemical activity o Part of who we are is built into us by our neurology (at least extroversion, neuroticism and impulsivity) Self and Identity o Encompass our own sense of who we are including our self-concept, self-esteem, and social identity o Self-concept – having a sense of who you are , our own opinion about that is our self-esteem o Trying to present ourselves a certain way to others – social identity o Self-reflection is not unique to humans, dolphins and chimpanzees also share that feature Intrapsychic Foundations of Personality o Intrapsychic- looking in within ourselves to our own conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings also make up our personality o Freud – our early experiences left an inedible, but unconscious, imprint on our adult personalities o Also suggested personality could be changed o To understand personality we must also take into account unconscious motivations, including our defense systems and attachments, starting with our caregivers and continuing to intimate relationships Regulations and Motivations: Self-Determination Theory o Self-determination theory – when people feel free to choose, are competent at what they do, and are connected to the people around them, they will be motivated and self-directed for the task at hand o Regulation and motivation is concerned with how people adjust their responses to the environment, consciously and unconsciously Cognitive Foundations o How people perceive and think about information about themselves and the world o There are differences in locus of control, learned helplessness, and optimism-pessimism Putting it All Together: Integration  Integration – we combine all the building blocks of personality into a while person  Who we are attracted to – genetics and neurology interact with cognitions, attachments, and motivations, to determine our sexual motivation;  Stress is also interesting to look at – for instance, are there differences in physiology that makes some people hardier and more resilient to stress? Or is handling stress an issue of mind over matter? Are some people better at coping? How Do Psychologists Study Personality? The Scientific Method  Empiricism – using direct experience to draw conclusions about the world  Relies on scientific method which describes how the make and test observations about the world in order to draw conclusions while minimizing error or bias  Science progresses along a continuum from casual observations, which may inspire a hunch or guess about human behavior, to controlled experimentation, in which researchers attempt to prove the theory false  As long as research evidence supports a theory that theory will prevail and with more research will reach that status of a law until it is overthrown by an alternative theory that explains the evidence even better Observational Studies and Personality Questionnaire  Personality questionnaires are tests in which people answer questions about themselves and identify certain aspects of their personality  Projective personality test – administering an ambiguous picture and asking participant to tell a story based on the pictures PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Correlational and Experimental Designs  Trying to find out why something is happening requires qualitative data and methods  Correlational coefficient – measures the relationship between two variables; can be positive or negative, high, medium or low depending on how big they are  When two variables are related there are at least 3 possible explanations for such findings: first its possible that the first variable causes the second; next, its possible that the second variable causes the first; and finally, its possible that some third variable causes both the variables  Knowing that two variables are similar doesn’t tell us about why they are similar, and correlation does not imply causation  In correlational studies, researchers don’t manipulate variables, but instead measure two variables to see how they are related  When researchers cant manipulate the variables they want to study, they conduct their studies in the real world using field studies and natural manipulations, such as studying people coping with job loss, ill health, or natural tragedies, or war  When correlational studies are well design, replicated and combined with other kinds of evidence, they are nearly as good as true experiments in identifying the causes of outcomes Research Methods Illustrated: A True Experiment  Experiment – placing people in carefully controlled situations and measuring their responses  Experimental condition – participants experience one treatment  Control condition – participants experience another treatment or no treatment at all  Random assignment – every participant has an equal chance of being placed in either condition  Experimental control – all aspects are the same except for the variable being studied  Logic of a true experiment – allows researchers to conclude that what they manipulated caused a difference in the outcome they measured  Independent measure – variable that researchers manipulate; independent of participants responses  Dependent variable – variable that researchers measure; response of the participants  Neuroticism – a personality trait which describes how anxious and vulnerable to negative emotions a person is  When we have a significant interaction, it means that one of the main effects is different depending on the level of the other variable  Conclusion of the study: effects of strategy depend on personality; power of positive thinking may not work for everyone Types of Data and Personality Assessment  Self-report data (questionnaires, interviews)  Observation data  Test data (how people behave in controlled environments)  Life data (counting how many times a person appears in pictures or how many organizations they belong to) Then and Now: The Ethics of Research With People  Ethical principles and guidelines were set out by the APA to ensure safety, trust, and welfare of research participants  Tuskegee Syphilis study – African American sharecroppers were given syphilis and prevented from obtaining treatment  According to the Belmont Report research with humans must adhere to three principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice o Respect for persons – allowing people to choose for themselves whether they wish to participate or not, by giving their consent after they have been informed about the procedures and possible risks – informed consent; researcher must also give extra protection to people who have limited autonomy or limited physical or mental capacity to give their informed consent o Beneficence – researcher should do no harm to the participant; using the best research methods and materials, having trained personnel interact with participants and minimizing possible harm and maximizing possible benefits of the participant o Justice – benefits and the burdens of research participants must be shared equitably among potential research participants; must treat all participants fairly and equally, avoiding samples of convenience, exploitation of vulnerable populations, and by not involving persons from groups unlikely to benefit from the research; if research is supported by public funds leads to therapeutic treatment, the treatment must be available to all, not just those who can afford it; finally, participants should receive some benefit or value for being in the study – either something direct and concrete or more general for the society  Common Rule: institutions that conduct research must establish and maintain n institutional review board to review all research o ensure it uphold all standards; must include researchers, an ethicist, and members of a community PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Lecture 2: Trait Approach  TRAIT = a consistent pattern of behavior, emotion, and thought  Stability over time and situations  Distinctiveness btw people  Personality = sum of all traits  Trait theories provide descriptions that must be explained by other theories  Theorists try to establish:  framework within which any and all persons can be described  taxonomy of traits Approaches to Discovering traits  Lexical Approach  Statistical (Empirical) Approach  Theoretical Approach Common traits and Trait Continua  Common traits are traits shared by all  Behaviours can be represented on trait continuum - each person can be placed somewhere on continuum  Scores assumed to be normal distributed (fewer people score in the extreme on any trait) Common traits and Nomothetic Approach • Ordering people along these dimensions is nomothetic approach used in most trait theories • Compares people along the same personality dimensions • Ex: comparing Canadians and Americans on the trait of risk-aversion • Contrast with idiographic approach • In-depth study of individuals – would want to know a lot about the individual • Nomothetic approach – seeing what the differences of extraversion are in two similar classes – dif populations are compared Key Ideas Gordon Allport • Advocated idiographic approach; believed there we common traits but viewed people from an idiographic perspective • Uniqueness = Combination of traits • Use of diaries, interviews, behavioural observations, q-sort etc. to assess personality • Q-sort – placing different traits in order from least like the person to those that are more common of the person and he assessed personality by looking at the ways in which individuals sorted these cards Traits • Internal structures that render many stimuli functionally equivalent and yield similar adaptive and expressive behaviours. • ex: shy person might see all social situations as threatening and react with anxiety • ex: person who is very helpful might see many situations as opportunities to help others • Stimuli are functionally equivalent when the person sees them in the same way and behaves in a consistent manner • Traits express what a person generally does across many different situations • Inconsistency does not mean that traits don’t exist - situations also influence whether, where, and how traits expressed. • ex: Lack of sociability at a funeral – impactful situation; no matter what type of personality, the person is usually quite because of the situation • Three types of traits… Cardinal  Single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities; very strong impact; very few people have this traits; Mother Theresa gave up a lot of things and made sacrifices; superman – one main directive to fight crime  Few people have them Central • Major characteristics of an individual; how you describe your friend, yourself etc. • Usually 5 - 10 central traits that a person has; friendly, honest, liar, cheater • People tend to describe others at this level where there is balance between trait generality and behavioral specificity. • ex: extraverted vs. sociable vs. talks a lot.; extraverted – general vs talk a lot – very specific , central trait - sociable Secondary • Characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations & are less influential. • More easily modified than central traits • ex: preference for dark chocolate or dislike of rap music Raymond Cattell  Empirical approach to trait theory; Gordon Allport went through dictionary and found trait words in the dictionary  Reduction of 4,500 trait words (left by Allport) to 16 most basic personality dimensions  Removed synonyms  Collected ratings on remaining traits by testing people on them  Used factor analysis to reduce the number of traits that he had Major Divisions of Traits  Constitutional (biological) vs. environment-mold (learned) o Constitutional – genetic or part of the fact that were human; environment- mold – learned traits • Ability vs. temperament vs. dynamic • Surface vs. source vs. second-order PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Ability vs. temperament vs. dynamic traits Ability • Skill in dealing with complexity • = intelligence o Fluid: ability to think and reason; not learned – innate, may develop it to certain extent but not learned; using your mind effectively o Crystallized: learned – stuff that you know, how to spell, facts, etc. Temperament  General traits that appear present early when the person is still an infant o Energy, moodiness, interest in others, how regular their daily cycles are Dynamic traits  Motivations o Ambition, competitiveness, etc. ; things that drive you or prevent you from making progress Surface vs. Source Traits • Surface traits: superficial traits; on the surface of things – things that are easier to see • Source traits: deeper more comprehensive traits identified through factor analysis – ex. Intelligence but surface traits would be things like how easily the person memorizes things, how easy it is for them to grasp something new Factor Analysis  Summarizes how a large # of variables are related to each other • Many different measures are administered personality measures to many respondents • Some scores will be positively correlated with one another; others negatively correlated • These correlations might reflect the influence of a more basic, underlying factor Second-Order Factors • Further factor analysis can be done to reduce Cattell’s 16 (or other trait taxonomies) to a lower number • Second-order analysis often results in 3 or 5 factors. Hans Eysenck • Theoretical approach (Hippocrates, Jung, others); 3 factors ; 2 orthogonal to each other and one that is orthogonal to those; lots of opportunity to variability • Biological/neurological causes of personality • Personality - individual differences in bio/neuro functioning Personality Types • Focused on higher levels of trait organization called types • Types incorporate traits • Each trait incorporates habits Types conceptualized as 3 bipolar dimensions • Extraversion: outgoing, sociable • Psychoticism: Toward psychosis and/or sociopathy, but to lesser extent (ex: recklessness, a disregard for common sense or conventions, degree of inappropriate emotional expression); lesser degree – not being appropriately cautious, not expressing emotions given a social setting; low on psychoticism – very conventional • Neuroticism: emotional instability; how well you have things under control; high – Lindsay Lohan • PEN Model Biological Basis of Personality • Individual differences in introversion-extraversion • Introverts experience more cortical arousal from events (e.g., intense social stimuli over-arouse, leading to inhibition and withdrawal) • Extraverts experience less cortical arousal than introverts from the same stimulus (e.g., due to under-arousal, extroverts seek social stimuli); need more input more stimulation, more sound, more social interaction in order to reach an optimal level PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Evidence for Biological Theory • Individual differences in introversion-extraversion stable over time; something innate in it that has staying power over time • Introversion-extraversion found cross-culturally; not culturally dependent – therefor must be something that’s biological about it • Various indices of biological functioning correlate with introversion-extraversion scores, including: • Brain activity • Heart rate - resting • Hormone level – related to stress • Sweat-gland activity Following Cattell…  Data collected in new, more comprehensive, and multivariate ways  Further factor analysis  Cattell’s data replicated with new, diverse samples, multiple cultures, different languages, children, over time, using non-verbal assessments  Findings showed 5 factors The “Big Fiver” Traits Additional Notes on Chapter 2: Personality Traits: A good Theory What is a Personality Trait?  When people live in an environment, they leave behind behavioral residue  Such physical traces give hints to the personality of the occupant  1-6 ordinary people rated 83 college rooms on each of the 44 descriptions applied to the occupants of the rooms; there was a great amount of consensus on what the participant was like  Observers were very accurate in guessing the personality of the occupants  There are many ways of describing human personality – sociable, flirty, anxious, easily upset, and many more – called traits  Traits describe a persons typical style of thinking, feeling, and acting in different kinds of situations and at different times  Generally persistent ways of acting and reacting are captured by the concept of traits  Temporary states, such as emotions, attitudes such as being liberal or conservative, and physical attributes are not considered personality traits  Traits – measured over a continuum from low to high  Traits are a hypothetical concept because they cant be directly measured and we cant see them  Some psychologists see traits as purely descriptive summaries of behavior without thinking about where they came from or why a person acts that way  Other psychologists view traits as internal, causal propertied and view traits as a capacity that is present even when the trait is not being directly expressed  Studying traits through a detailed study of a single individual= idiographic  Studying traits through the study of numerous people = nomothetic Two Approaches to the Study of Personality  Idiographic approach – understand the personality of a single individual with all his or her quirks or idiosyncrasies and characteristics that make them unique  Nomothetic approach – goal is to discover universals by identifying describe all people or that can be applied to any person  Idiographic and nomothetic approaches overlap and both contribute to a complete understanding of human personality  Allport – individuality cannot be studied by science but he recognized a place for the study of individuals within psychology; we should start with individual behavior as a source for hunches, and then seek our generalizations and then come back to the individual once more for a fuller, supplementary, and more accurate assessment than we are able to give  Hans Eysenck – realized that one could study both the individual and general and develop a theory from there; human personality is organized in a hierarchy (pyramid, Fig. 2.2, p. 26)  The pyramid characterizes human personality from the most general level at the top to the most specific level at the bottom  General – trait is universal; specific – trait is more unique to a single person  Eysenck cautions that our conclusions must be based experimentally to build a valid scientific theory PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology What Do We Know About Personality From the Idiographic Approach? Studying Individual Personalities: The Idiographic Approach  Allport identified 3 traits: o Central traits – traits that are of major importance in understanding the person; 5 to 10 traits that people who know you might mention in your letter of recommendation or to someone who doesn’t know you o Secondary traits – traits of lesser importance, less consistently displayed or seldom displayed or only slightly revealed so that only close friends might notice them o Cardinal traits – single traits that dominate a person; an unusual person may have one and only one trait that describes them; so pervasive and extremely influential that practically every aspect of a person’s life is touched by this “ruling passion” The Idiographic Approach: The Case of Jenny  Jenny was a pseudonym for a women who wrote a detailed correspondence to two friends over a period of ten years  Born in Ireland and moved to the US; husband died and she was left with her son; relationship was strained in adulthood; wrote to Ross’s college roommate Glen and his wife, 10 years after Ross’s college years  Sentimental, suspicious, and quarrelsome are some of her central traits  Turns out, Jenny was writing the letters to Allport and his wife Ada What Do We Know About Personality From The Nomothetic Approach? Finding the Universals: The Nomothetic Approach  There are atleast 3 different ways to identify the most meaningful and applicable words to describe personality  Typically use a combo of the theoretical approach, the lexical and the measurement approach  Once the basic traits have been identified, psychologists use statistical techniques to verify and validate that they are indeed the important traits The Theoretical Approach  Starting with a theory or common wisdom about human personality  Jung hypothesized that people differ in how they evaluate information – either rationally (the thinking function) or through emotions; spoke of at least two personality types: feeling types and thinking types  Freud believed that if a child had weaning or toilet training this would affect later adult personality – oral personality = overly dependent or anal personality = organized and uptight The Lexical Approach  Explores a particular language and identifies the number of synonyms that describe personality - of concept is important to human speaker, then it will be encoded in their language in multiple ways  If the same personality trait is found across many different languages, such a trait may qualify as universal  Looking for synonyms and commonalities between languages may help psychologists to identify key terms for describing human personality The Measurement Approach  Discovering important aspects of personality and trying to measure personality  Needed a taxonomy, or some systematic way of identifying and classifying trait terms that unified them into a coherent body  One way was to use mathematical and statistical techniques such as factor of analysis to see if the various trait terms cluster together  Cattell started with 4,504 traits and reduced them down to 160 by eliminating similarities, then he added all traits identified by other psychologists and then used factor analysis and discovered 16 factors – The 16 Personality Factors questionnaire  Cattell didn’t realize that the 5 factors that are so widely accepted today were starring him right in the face in his own data Research Methods Illustrated: Factor Analysis  Factor analysis – statistical technique that mathematically identified a meaning underlying structure among a set of variables  How do we know that some questions go together? We look at the correlations among all the questions in the data  Each factor can explain a certain amount of variation in answers between participants – called eigenvalue of the factor  From the eigenvalue we calculate factor loadings – estimate of how strongly questions fit into a given factor  By rotating the factors, the combining and weighting of questions that make up that factor shift slightly so that the researcher is better able to see the underlying factor  How do we know how many factors best explain the data? Researchers may stop when a new factor doesn’t add much; often researchers take a pragmatic approach and keep only a few factors that are actually interpretable  To name the factors we look at the items that fall together on each factor and see what concept they all appear to be getting at  Factor analysis gives an answer, but it is up to the researcher to make a solid case for their conclusion and to replicate their findings before we can believe it is the answer The Great Nomothetic Search for Universal Principles of Personality  Others building on Cattell’s statistical work, identified a solution of 5 remarkably similar factors – The Big Five Factors  Each of the Big Five factors describes personality at a high lever of abstraction, summarizing a large number of more distinct lower level traits Three Superfactors: Eyesenck  He identified 3 broad dimensions of personality: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism - PEN model of personality  More specific traits associated with each of the factors = narrow traits PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology  Psychoticism – how tough-minded or antisocial people are; impulsivity or disinhibition versus constraint or uncontrolled vs controlled; high – selfish and antisocial o Narrow traits: aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive, antisocial, lacking empathy, creative and tough-minded o A writer described psychoticism as low on agreeableness and low on conscientiousness with a few other very bad things thrown in o According to Eysenck – someone high on psychoticism may be cruel and inhumane, lacking feelings and empathy, and although insensitive, he has a liking for odd and unusual things, and a disregard towards danger  Extraversion – how outgoing people are, bot to the social and physical environments o Narrow traits: sociable, lively, active, assertive, sensation-seeking, carefree, dominant, surgent, and venturous o Tend to be outgoing and experience many positive feelings such as happiness and joy; generally impulsive; their feelings are not kept under tight control and they are not always a reliable person o Typical introvert is someone who is quiet, retiring sort of person, fond of books rather than people, doesn’t like excitement, takes matters very seriously, plans ahead, distrusts the impulse of the moment, and they are reliable and somewhat of a pessimist  Neuroticism – negative emotionality and emotional reactivity o Narrow traits: anxious, depressed, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, tense, irrational, shy, mood, and emotional o High in neuroticism tend to be easily upset and vulnerable to negative emotions; low on neuroticism are even-tempered, calm, relaxed, carefree, unworried, somewhat unemotional, and recover quickly from an upsetting moment  One problem with Eysenck’s theory is that important traits are missing; Eysenck disagreed and claimed they were looking at different levels in the hierarchy  He believed that other conceptualizations are invalid because they include some traits from multiple levels on the hierarchy; Eysenck was talking about factors at the top of the hierarchy, but some measures of the Big 5 factor model, were identified as mixed habit and responses  He countered that the factors of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were at the level of habits and therefore not comparable to the overlapping aspect in his own theory (Extraversion and Neuroticism) ; openness was seen as more of a cognitive factor to Eysenck and it should not be considered a dimension of personality Five Factors: The Big-Five and the Five-Factor Model  The Big Five Factors are Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness  N: Neuroticism, Negative Affectivity, Nervousness (Factor IV)  E: Extraversion, Energy, Enthusiasm (Factor I)  O: Openness, Originality, Open-mindedness (Factor V)  A: Agreeableness, Altruism, Affection (Factor II)  C: Conscientiousness, Control, Constraint (Factor III)  Neuroticism vs Emotional Stability – neuroticism = how well a person adjusts to the “slings and arrows of daily life”; emotionality, psychological distress, and reactivity; being low on neuroticism doesn’t mean that they are high in overall mental health o One of the best indicator of neuroticism is captured by the statement “I often feel tense and jittery” from the NEO Personality Inventory – Revised o Each of the five personality factors are made up of 6 subscales called facets; for neuroticism these are anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self- consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability to stress o High on Neuroticism show poorer coping skills in stressful situations, poorer health, and are likely to experience burnout and job changes; prone to negative emotions o Emotionally stable people show more commitment to work and great satisfaction with their personal relationships o Anxiety and depression are related to b=neuroticism  Extraversion vs. Introversion – described how one surges or energetically engages with the social world o Extroverted people like other people, are assertive, active, talkative, and cheerful enjoy large groups and gatherings and enjoy excitement o Made up of facets such as warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, and positive emotions o “I am a cheerful, high-spirited person” o Introverts are more likely to experience poorer relationships with parents and peers  Openness – appreciation of the life of the mind in such things as ideas, thoughts, fantasies, beauty, art, and is not the same as intelligence; an openness to ideas and new things rather than to people o Facets such as fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values o High in openness tend to be creative and imaginative, tend to go further in their educations, to succeed in creative jobs, and create distinctive work and home environments vs people low on openness are more conventional, practical and down-to-earth o People high in openness like new experiences, not necessarily ones that are dangerous or exciting  Agreeableness – quality of interpersonal relationships; how much a person feels for and gets along with others, whether he or she seeks out such enjoyment o Prosocial or communal orientation to others; contrasted with antagonism or competitiveness o People low in agreeableness show hostility, self-centeredness, spitefulness, indifference, and even jealousy towards others o Facets of trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness o People high in agreeableness show better performance in work groups o People low in agreeableness are at risk for cardiovascular disease, juvenile delinquency, and interpersonal problems PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology  Conscientiousness – individuals degree of organization, both physical and mental; how we regulate our own impulses such as thinking before acting, delaying gratification, or following norms and rules o Facets such as competence, order, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self- discipline, and deliberation o High in conscientiousness are rated by their peers as well organized, neat, thorough, and diligent; have higher GPAs, and better on the job performance; live longer o Low in conscientiousness – more like to smoke, abuse alcohol and other drugs, show attention deficit disorder, have a poor diet, and not exercise enough o In Eysenck’s model - Psychoticism = agreeableness and conscientiousness A Rose by Any Other Name? Two Models of the Five Factors  Part of the confusion for the names of the factors is due to the fact that the factors look slightly different depending on the method used to identify them (especially openness)  Lexical solution – surgency, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and culture  Using factor analysis – Anxiety-Adjustment, Introversion-Extroversion, and Openness to experience  Later persuaded by the strength of the lexical solution added in the other two factors and called it the five-factor model  The ordering of the factors (NEOAC) reflects the amount of variance accounted for by each of the five factors  One difference between the two models is the names of the individual factors (ex. Emotional stability vs neuroticism); both refer to same dimension, only difference is in the direction – which end of the pole the researchers wish to emphasize  Big Five Culture factor is a narrower view of openness, which refers to openness to aesthetic or cultural tastes, a wider range of emotions and is not limited to creativity and intellectual interests; creativity, imagination and originality are important aspects of this factor to both models  Big Five describe personality without attempting to explain where the attributes came from; FFM theorizes that the five traits are biological traits – causal entities that that correspond to neuropsychic structures that are in the process of being identified  Big Five model, being grounded in adjectives, it has been replicated cross- culturally in many different languages; NEO-PR-R may be more dependent on language because it uses sentences, and may lose something in the translation  Use Big Five when referring to lexical and the FFM when referring to the questionnaire factors, and the five-factor taxonomy when model doesn’t matter Is Five Really the Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything?  Statistically, 16 factors explain more variance in personality, but if the difference theoretically, socially, or practically important? It depends on the goals and what you are trying to predict  If you’re a personality explorer, like Cattell, then a higher number of factors suit your purpose, if you’re trying to find out how people act differently depending on their traits, then smaller number may be better  The broadest level of the hierarchy is to personality what the categories plant and animal are to the world of natural objects – extremely useful for some initial rough distinctions but of less value for predicting specific behaviors of a particular object A One-Factor Solution  General personality factor (GPF) – hypothesized to explain all of human personality in much the same way as g represents the general factor of intelligence underlying all mental abilities  Lies at the very top of the hierarchy  Musek – this factor includes all the positive aspects of the five factors: Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Intellect; encompasses two aspects of Alpha (emotional stability to get along with other) and Beta (flexibility to deal with change)  High on GPF – altruistic, sociable, able to handle stress, relaxed, open to experience, task-focused, and dependable = evolutionarily hard-wired because they’re necessary for survival Six- and Seven-Factor Solutions…and Beyond?  HEXACO (six-factor) model: Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to experience  Honesty-Humility emerged out of research in other cultures and languages and might be best thought of as genuineness or trustworthiness factor in English  Facets of sincerity, fairness, greed avoidance, and modesty as contrasted with arrogance and egotism  Different from agreeableness with respect to power and manipulation; someone high in Honesty-Humility would not take advantage of another person, especially if that person is disadvantaged in some way  Criticized by McCrae and Costa – sixth factor is just another variant of Agreeableness tapping more introverted aspects; thought of it to be redundant and not an improvement  When terms that represent temporary states or evaluations are added back into the model, you get a seven-factor solution  The Big Seven factors are very similar to the Big Five with the addition of Negative Valence and Positive Valence which are useful in understanding pathology Then and Now: The Four Temperaments and the Five Factors  In ancient Greece, philosopher Empedocles proposed that all of nature was made up of four elements – air, earth, fire, and water  Hippocrates – humans contained elements of the cosmos – we have without our body the corresponding humors that affect our temperament or personality  Predominance of blood made one cheerful and happy; too much yellow bile and one was quick to anger PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology  Galen – linked the temperaments to diseases – first to recognize relationship between physiology and personality  Gordon Allport – found that most people were able to guess which temperament went with what graphical representation; noted that 4 temperaments fit easily into two-factor theories of personality, whether the two factors be speed and intensity of emotional arousal or activity level and a tendency to approach or withdraw from situations  Eyesenck – the four temperaments fit the dimensions of emotional/non-emotional and changeable/unchangeable (factors identified by Wilhelm Wundt); correspond to neuroticism and extraversion  The five factors that are known today, some say that they are of a two-factor solution – alpha and beta o Alpha consists of emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; Beta consists of extraversion and openness to experience  Digman – these two factors represent the major task of personality development – socialization and actualization o Socialization – developing according to society’s blue print – learning how to regulate ones emotions and impulses, living up to expectations, and not being too defensive when interacting with others o Actualization – personal growth, going out in the world being open to new experiences and adapt to them  Others have suggested that all humans may seek to categorize people as benign vs harmful (socialize) and stimulating vs boring (actualized) The Personality of Everyday Life: What Can You Tell About Someone From His or Her Living Space?  First you must decide if the item or decoration was put there on purpose or if it was just behavioral residue from everyday living  If it was put there on purpose, consider the following question – Is the item expressive of the individuals true personality or was it put there to convey a particular image? o One way of telling is whether the item is in public view or in a place where only the occupant can see  If they are high in conscientiousness they are more likely to be organized, neat and uncluttered; high in openness tend to have more decorations in the living space and a greater variety of magazines and books  No specific cues as for neuroticism, agreeableness and extraversion; you may be able to guess though – observers were able to guess pretty accurately even though there was little agreement on the specific cues used for their judgments Lecture 3: Traits Part 2 The Big Five +?  Honesty-Humility? o Introverted component of agreeableness? o Empirical question – answered using data; develop a measure of honesty- humility and see if it overlaps with others  Intelligence? o Conceptually like openness – being interested in different aspects of the world, cultures, consolidating info o Loads on conscientiousness o Depends on how you define it – different ways of defining – curios or logical (O)/ good at problem solving (C)  Spiritual transcendence / religiosity o Evidence suggest transcendence may be separate from Big 5 o Transcendence - understanding the big picture and seeing oneself as part of a whole  Sexuality? o Not sexual orientation; refers to attractiveness, exclusivity, restraint, orientation etc (see text for more) o Overlap w/ Big 5 Is the FFM Universal?  Universal = invariant of culture – you can find it anywhere in the world and independent of learning  Artifact of development with WEIRD participants? o Most studies have been done using participants who are Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic; homogenous  Derived in English using lexical approach o Assumes other languages will have words for same ideas – not always the case, sometimes its hard to explain a word from another language because there is no word for it in the other language o Most common version of the Big Five has been validated in over 50 countries; developing an indigenous measure – starting in the culture of choice and looking at the words of interest to describe personality and then use factor analysis  Indigenous measures get similar results except: o Extraversion, agreeableness not always distinct – western culture – extraversion = outgoing, and social dominance (leader), may not be the case in other cultures o Openness varies  Defined differently in different cultures  Unique traits (ex: filial piety in China)? – textbook o Filial piety = taking care of the elderly, continuing the family; being part of an experienced based system o line, honouring your ancestors, etc  More than 5 traits needed in some cultures – experienced PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology  Reliability of FFM lower in less developed countries  Potential reasons: o Translations may not be 100% accurate – understanding of the word in a certain context might be different o Item relevance – in a culture with very set roles, its not going to be appropriate for someone to take charge in a group so questions about that is not relevant; concept of a party with noise wouldn’t make sense to some people in some cultures o Familiarity with test format – might affect results if you have no idea how to fill out the answers o Representative samples FFM in Tsimane culture (Gerven, von Rueden, Massenkoff, Kaplan, & Lero Vie, 2012)  Used translated version of FFM; people in Bolivia – chimane; hunting and farming culture; translated into Spanish  Factor analysis showed 2 factors o Combination of extraversion and agreeableness (prosociality?) o Industriousness Personality in Everyday Life  Leadership roles  Musical preferences  Career / Work  Relationships Personality and Leadership Roles  Meta-analysis of the relationship btw Big 5 traits and leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002)  Meta-analysis: statistical technique for combining findings from studies to form one massive study – can reveal relationships that individual studies didn’t find  Extraversion most consistent correlate of leadership – whether the individual will display leadership types of behaviors  Followed by conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism (- negative direction; less neurotic more likely to be in a leadership role)  Agreeableness had very low correlation with leadership o This article provides a qualitative review of the trait perspective in leadership research, followed by a meta-analysis. The authors used the five-factor model as an organizing framework and meta-analyzed 222 correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism .24, Extraversion .31, Openness to Experience .24, Agreeableness .08, and Conscientiousness .28. o Results indicated that the relations of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness with leadership generalized in that more than 90% of the individual correlations were greater than 0. Extraversion was the most consistent correlate of leadership across study settings and leadership criteria (leader emergence and leadership effectiveness). Overall, the five-factor model had a multiple correlation of .48 with leadership, indicating strong support for the leader trait perspective when traits are organized according to the five-factor model. Career/work  Personality testing often used in HR  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator common measure to match btw people and work - match people to their work and popular in workplace workshops to help understand how coworkers think – their style of work and how they interact with work and so forth  Follows work of Carl Jung  Jung’s Psychological Types – grand theory; two basic attitudes towards the world: o introversion – extroversion  4 psychological functions  thinking – feeling  sensation – intuition  dominant function & auxiliary function – dominant function used most often  8 psychological types  Jung believed that we all use these four functions in our lives, but that each individual uses the different functions with a varying amount of success and frequency. He believed that we could identify an order of preference for these functions within individuals. The function that someone uses most frequently is their "dominant" function. The dominant function is supported by an auxiliary (2nd) function, tertiary (3rd) function, and inferior (4th) function. He asserted that individuals either "extraverted" or "introverted" their dominant function. He felt that the dominant function was so important, that it overshadowed all of the other functions in terms of defining personality type. Therefore, Jung defined eight personality types Introversion  Draws energy from within  Focus on inner world of thought, ideas – lives inside their head  Can only spend a little bit of time with other people or else they’ll get frustrated and tired Extraversion  Draws energy from environment  Focus on people, things outside self  Always wants to be around other people and likes to go out and party  Need to have a lot of external stuff going on – music, foods, dif visual stimulation The Four Functions  Thinking and Feeling  ways of making decisions, judgments  T: logic, reason, principles – make decisions with head not heart  F: emotions, personal values PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology  Can change depending on a situation – prob comes when someone cant decide how to decide; this talks about what they do automatically – it’s a continuum not either/or  Sensation and Intuition  ways of getting information info about world – how draw info into you about things going on around you  S: through senses, focus on details  iN: through “sixth sense”, focus on big picture – rely on feeling about the person The eight psychological types that Jung proposed • introverted thinking • interested in ideas • interested in inner reality • pays little attention to other people - startled person when you try and get their attention • introverted feeling • superficially reserved – appears to be but may not be • sympathetic and understanding of close friends or of others in need • loving, but not demonstrative • introverted sensation • emphasizes experience which events trigger (not the events themselves) • e.g., musicians and artists • how things look and feel and interested in experience – spending hours and hours looking at one painting • introverted intuition • concerned with possibilities (not the present reality) • in touch with the unconscious • new age person – interested in the real of unconscious, dreams, etc. • extroverted thinking • interested in facts about objects external to the self • logical • represses emotions and feelings • neglects friends and relationships • extroverted feeling • concerned with human relationships • adjusted to the environment • more common among women • make decisions based on their heart or how they feel about things • extroverted sensation • emphasizes the objects that trigger experience • concerned with facts and details • pleasure-seeking (sometimes) • immersive sensory experiences and take in info through their 5 senses • objects – not direct physical objects but the things their attention is directed towards • extroverted intuition • concerned with possibilities for change in the external world, rather than with the familiar; concerned with the big picture • an adventurer – going on voyages and seeing what’s out there; wants experiences with meaning  introverted sensory person – primary function – sensing/thinking, auxiliary – thinking or feeling – one from the other pairing Elaboration by Briggs & Myers rd • Added 3 function: Judgment and perception (How you relate to the external world) • Judging orientation • decisive, planned, and orderly – make agendas and put plans together • generate systems, provide organization, act decisively • Perceptive orientation • flexible, adaptable, and spontaneous – innovators • provide new ideas, insight, react flexibily if the system breaks down - if you’re good at one you wont be great at the other 16 Psychological Types in MBTI • ISTJ • ISFJ • INFJ • INTJ • ISTP • ISFP • INFP • INTP • ESTP • ESFP • ENFP • ENTP • ESTJ • ESFJ • ENFJ • ENTJ  Works well in workplace applications with making people think about how others act and for what reasons  If you take the MBTI there’s manuals that will tell you what job is suitable for a person of that type – skills that you have; where is your personality type going to make you fit in best ; helps to understand other people – instead of getting frustrated with people and coworkers helps to understand how people think and act in different situations Work Application of MBTI – not tested on this Extraversion  Jumps In, Initiating  Sociability  Interaction  Thinks out loud  Breadth  Expressive Introversion  Reflective PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology  Intensive  Concentration  Limited relationships  Rehearse before talking  Internal  Depth  Constraint E or I Preferred Work Environment- not going to be tested on Extraversion  Varied and action-oriented  Prefers to be around and with others  Interests have breadth  Lively and popular Introversion  Quiet and concentrated  Prefers to be alone  Interests have depth  Calm and private Thinking  Objective  Logic, principles  Truthful  Firmness  Impersonal Feeling  Subjective  Personal values  Tactful, harmony  Persuasion  Interpersonal T or F Preferred Work Environment – not tested on this Thinking  Brief and businesslike  Impersonal  Treats others fairly  Detached  Discuss issues logically, consider the pros and cons, spot inconsistencies in a plan Feeling  Naturally friendly  Personal  Treats others as they need to be treated  Involved  Understand what’s important to ppl, acknowledge human side of decision-making, help others accept decisions Musical Preference and Personality Rentfrow and Gosling (2003) – Gosling- personality and everyday life  Large-scale study on musical preference and personality  Started by asking ppl to rate types of music and personality inventory; comprehensive list and a wide variety of music  Factor-analysed to 4 major genres – patterns of the things that people enjoy  Correlated scores for music preference with scores on Big 5. 1. Reflective & Complex  Classical, Blues, Jazz, & Folk  Very high on O  Low on N  inventive, active imaginations, value aesthetic experiences, consider themselves to be intelligent, tolerant of others, and reject conservative ideals  For example, the Reflective and Complex dimension was positively related to Openness to New Experiences, self-perceived intelligence, verbal (but not analytic) ability, and political liberalism and negatively related to social dominance orientation and athleticism. These correlations, along with item-level analyses of the BFI, suggest that individuals who enjoy listening to reflective and complex music tend to be inventive, have active imaginations, value aesthetic experiences, consider themselves to be intelligent, tolerant of others, and reject conservative ideals. 2. Intense and Rebellious o Alternative, Rock, & Heavy Metal o Moderately high on O  Curious about different things, enjoy taking risks, are physically active, consider themselves intelligent  The Intense and Rebellious dimension was positively related to Openness to New Experiences, athleticism, self-perceived intelligence, and verbal ability. Interestingly, despite previous findings that this dimension contains music that emphasizes negative emotions, individuals who prefer music in this dimension do not appear to display signs of neuroticism or disagreeableness. Overall, individuals who prefer intense and rebellious music tend to be curious about different things, enjoy taking risks, are physically active, and consider themselves intelligent. 3. Upbeat and conventional o Pop, Country, Soundtracks o Moderately high in E, A, and C o Slightly low on O – appealing on a basic level; fun and serves purpose  Cheerful, outgoing, reliable, enjoy helping others, see themselves as physically attractive, tend to be relatively conventional – not thinking outside of the box; more traditional  Upbeat and Conventional dimension reveal positive correlations with Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, conservatism, self-perceived physical attractiveness, and athleticism and negative correlations with Openness to New PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Experiences, social dominance orientation, liberalism, and verbal ability. Our analyses suggest that individuals who enjoy listening to upbeat and conventional music are cheerful, socially outgoing, reliable, enjoy helping others, see themselves as physically attractive, and tend to be relatively conventional 4. Energetic & Rythmic o Hip-hop, Rap, Funk, Soul, & Electronic o Moderately high on E o Slightly high on A  Talkative, full of energy, forgiving, see themselves as physically attractive, eschew conservative ideals  The Energetic and Rhythmic dimension was positively related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, blirtatiousness, liberalism, selfperceived attractiveness, and athleticism and negatively related to social dominance orientation and conservatism. Thus, individuals who enjoy Energetic and Rhythmic music tend to be talkative, full of energy, are forgiving, see themselves as physically attractive, and tend to eschew conservative ideals Personality and Relationships  Extraversion – no correlation with relationship satisfaction  Agreeableness– small correlation (0.35)  Conscientiousness – small correlation - paying attention to others, how they live to be treated, remembering other people birthday, etc. (.24)  Neuroticism – medium – negative correlation; worried about things, concerned that you’re not doing things right, interpreting things in a negative way (.30)  Openness – small correlation – positive correlation – more open to experience, you’re more adaptive and willing to try new things (.13)  Your personality and your partner’s personality both predict how happy you’ll be (esp. N and A).  Birds of a feather don’t flock together (though they do share similar values).  Opposites don’t attract – but look for someone who has opposite skills to you so they can do what you cant do  The more similar you are, the happier you’ll probably be in your relationship.  The more similar your partner is to your “ideal”, the happier you’ll probably be Additional Notes on Chapter 3: Personality Traits: Practical Matters  Men had firmer handshakes than women and 3 out of 5 factors were correlated with the Firm Handshake Composite  Neurotic – weak handshake; emotionally stable – strong handshake  Extraverts had a firmer handshake than introverts  Women who had a firmer handshake were more open to experience What’s Missing from the Five Factors? Is Intelligence a Personality Trait?  Cattell identified traits such as memory, mathematical ability, and intelligence  Early studies defines Openness as consisting of sophisticated, artistic and intellectual interests, and intelligence – factor was known as Culture; other studies found that intelligent, knowledgeable, and cultured, load on Conscientious more  When people rate themselves or friends on intelligence, they are generally thinking of intelligent, rational, logical, clear-minded, and mature – personality descriptors that are dif from cognitive ability or IQ; when participants rate themselves on intelligence adjectives such as hardworking, smart, and knowledgeable, they end up loading on Conscientious, and not related to intelligence  There are individual difs in how people perceive and process information about the social world = emotional intelligence  Whole topic of intelligence is an ability in the form of IQ has a history; IQ is quite a different concept than traits Is Religiosity a Personality Trait?  For many people spirituality is more than a belief, an attitude, a demographic, a tradition, or a habit: it’s a core part of who they are  More appropriately considered as a secondary trait – applicable for certain purposes but not a core aspect of personality  Spiritual transcendence – the ability of individuals to stand outside their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective; includes greater search for personal connection; scores on each of the three transcendent scales were only slightly related to scores on the Big Five factors  Factor analysis yielded six independent factors, one of which was spiritual transcendence, suggesting that it is a dimension of personality separate from the first five factors of personality Is Sexuality a Personality Trait?  Words that describe aspects of sexuality or that were more applicable to one gender or the other were purposefully excluded from early lexical studies – resulted in the near total omission of the individual difs in sexuality  7 sexuality factors – Sexy Seven – Sexual attractiveness, relationship exclusivity, gender orientation, sexual restraint, erotophilic disposition, emotional investment, and sexual orientation  Sexuality factors overlap 80% with the five factors – they are not really separate factors; because sexuality can be accounted for by the combination of factors, and facets of the five factors, sexuality is not a separate personality trait  Sexuality is another way that we express out traits of Neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Traits?  Philotimo – person who I spolite, generous, responsible, respectful and has a strong sense of honor; Greek  Filial piety – caring for the mental and physical well-being of one’s elderly parents, continuing the family line, and bringing honor to one’s family and PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology ancestors; this trait must be internalized by all young people – indigenous personality traits are necessary to fully explain this construction in Chinese college students  Amae – Japanese; relationship between people of lower and higher status, in addition to relationships between parents and children  Indigenous personality traits lie beyond the five factors The Five Factors in Other Cultures 1. Questionnaire measures of the five-factor model reliably replicate across many cultures and languages  When translated and then carefully back-translated to ensure the items are comparable, applies very well across many countries and cultures; tested in over 50 countries; five-factor scores correlate impressively with meaningful external criteria on life outcomes such as life satisfaction and getting along with others; considerable evidence that the FFM dimensions are in fact universally applicable 2. Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of all traits except Openness in many cultures  The closer a culture is to a Northern European culture, the closer the results are to the Anglo-based Big Five 3. Openness varies across cultures  Lexical models find Openness to be language and culture specific – there are slight variations in which adjectives are loaded on the openness factor in German, Turkish, Hebrew, Filipino, and Dutch  It may be that this factor is just defined differently, unique to a specific culture  “sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at work of art, I feel a chill or wave of excitement” – strongest predictors of scores for openness; preforms less well however, in African cultures, possibly due to measurement problems; it may transcend culture and capture a human universal – perhaps the feeling of chills when one is moved is universal, whereas what is likely to give us chills varies by culture 4. In some cultures more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality  In cultures such as Hungarian and Korean, these additional factors tap culture specific forms of extraversion or Agreeableness , or aspects of social evaluation that are particularly salient in that culture  A &G may tap both universal and culture specific aspects of personality – interpersonal relations are important so natural languages may have developed many terms for getting along with others 5. We need more research in indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture  Indigenous traits (traits originating in other languages and which are unique to a culture) are interpretable as characteristic adaptations within the Five Factor Theory, others counter that both questionnaire measures and adjective measures may miss indigenous terms  Some researchers therefor start with the lexicon specific to a certain culture and see how many factors best account for personality in their cultures Personality Traits Cross-Culturally: Personality Traits in China  China & Confucianism – emphasizes the fundamental relatedness among individuals  That facet of actions, part of O, did not load on any of the factors, this may indicate a problem with the scale, a genuine dif among Chinese on this dimension, or simply a measurement error  Start with traditional Chinese values, and see how these attributes apply to Chinese personality  Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) – using a sort of lexical approach by identifying descriptions of personality from literature, proverbs, surveys, and previous research --> 10 traits clusters unique to the Chinese personality and not covered in the Western personality inventory (p.55)  When factor-analyzed 4 factors emerged: dependability (responsibility, practical-mindedness, graciousness), Chinese Tradition (Harmony, Ren Qing, Face), Social Potency (leadership, adventurousness), and individualism (self- orientation, logical, Ah-Q mentality)  One indigenous personality factor called Interpersonal Relatedness – instrumentality of relationships, propriety, avoidance of conflict, support of traditions, and compliance with norms  Items from the sixth indigenous factor loads among the regular five factors – existence of a uniquely Chinese personality factor beyond he western five factors Research Methods Illustrated: Triangulation and Types of Data  Using multiple methods within a single program of research = triangulation o Each method compensates for the weakness of the others  Four kinds of data that personality psychologists might collect (LOTS): o Self-report data (S data) – administer personality tests or other self-report questionnaires; includes objective personality tests, interviews, narratives, life stories, and survey research o Test-data (T data) – place a person in controlled situations that test them to see how they responded; includes experimental procedures, or standardized measures; ex. Intelligence tests, task persistence, and reaction time & TAT and Rorschach Inkblot Test o Observation data (O data) – watching people in the laboratory or in their daily lives; collect from photos or videos, and information from knowledgeable informants such as family, friends, parents, children, teachers, interviews, and the like o Life data (L data) – track down information that is publically available; graduating from college, getting married or divorced, moving , in addition to a persons socioeconomic status, membership in clubs and organizations, number of car accidents, internet activity and similar life events PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Expression of Traits in Everyday Life Personality Traits of Presidents  Presidents tend to be more extraverted, less open to experience, and less agreeable  They score higher than the general population on the facets of achievement striving, and emotionality, but lower on psychological liberalism, morality, and modesty  Presidents who are rated as truly great, tend to be higher in Openness than the average person, and they are smarter than average, are aware of their feelings, and are imaginative and more interested in art and beauty ; also tend to question traditional values and open to new ideas and trying new ways of doing things o Slightly more extraverted and conscientious, and a little less agreeable than the average person o Score low on morality and cooperation o Neuroticism was not related Music Preferences and Personality Traits  Cattell believed that musical choice reflected unconscious motives  Rentfrow and Gosling – how personality traits of the five-factor model related to musical tastes o 1700 took the STOMP test where they rated how much they liked a certain type of music, and then used factor analysis to identify the major types of music genres o Also filled out the Big Five Inventory, and correlated scores on the STOMP with the scores on the BFI to see if there was a relationship between the kind of music listened to and personality traits o Men and women had similar tastes in music o Chronic mood had no impact on what music one liked o Dif personalities preferred dif kinds of music o High on neuroticism = did NOT like classical, jazz, folk, or blues (Reflective and Complex) o Extraverts were fond of Energetic and Rhythmic, and Upbeat and Conventional, especially if they were high on excitement seeking or positive emotions o High in Openness liked more cerebral classical and jazz music (Reflective and Complex) and Intense and Rebellious music o High on conscientiousness showed only a slight preference for Upbeat and Conventional  High in O tended to engage in music in a more intellectual way, concentrating on what they were hearing, enjoying and analyzing complex compositions  People high in N and low in E and C were more like to engage in a more emotional way to change or enhance their mood; tended to feel emotional after listening to music, whether it be happy, sad, or nostalgic ad they often associated specific memories with a particular song  Men, more so then women, and people high in E enjoyed the exaggerated bass more so than introverts; extraverts need more stimulation than introverts; exaggerated bass is a key component in club and rap music – again linked with extroversion  Pop musicians were slightly higher on N than an average adult; also were high in N and O, but about average in E (but high in positive emotions and excitement seeking), low in A and C Web Pages and Personality Traits  May reflect our true personality or they may reflect managed impressions specifically formulated to impress others  Bloggers tend to be high on N and O than nonbloggers; women who are high in N are more likely to blog than emotionally stable women  Observers got clear impressions about web page owners; O was easiest to judge and was the most accurately judged  Ratings of E and A were closer to page owner’s ideals than to their true selves; raters tended to see a person as extraverted or agreeable as the person wanted to see themselves, rather than the true level of these traits  Personal websites reflect both the owners true selves with a bit of impression management – of how outgoing and likeable one is Careers and Personality Trait  Successful astronauts as well as those who must live and work in confined and dangerous settings with others have to be high in independence, achievement striving, and goal orientation settings with others  High C, A, and low N  Professional, police, managers, and sales workers – high in C related to high performance ratings, productivity, and training proficiency and so forth  Being extraverted was helpful for people in sales and managers  O and E were related to job training proficiency  Artists = highest in O, only significantly higher than doctors, who scored the lowest on this trait  Artists & lawyers = highest in N, doctors = most emotionally stable, clinical psychologists in between the two  High C – related to occupational success, no matter what job  Sales members = high in C and O and low in A  People high in O may have a more positive attitude and open mind that helps them succeed at job training, which may lead to better on the job performance  Best sales person is not necessarily one who is sociable and enjoys the company of others, but one who is hardworking, persistent, and a go –getter, it also doesn’t hurt to be tough, pushy and dogged either PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology The Personality of Everyday Life: What Does Your Online Presence Say About Your Personality?  People low in self-esteem picked usernames such as emotional_void_82; peoples perceived competence also shown through in their usernames – stevethetennisaces , smartguy vs spacystacy and sloppycrazyandweird  Bloggers reveal their personality by their choice of words; high in N use words related to negative emotions, people high in E used words related to positive emotions; people low in A used more swear words and people high in A referred more to community; people high in C write more about achievements  As for FB visitors are more likely to accurately judge someone’s personality when users talked about their beliefs, joys, embarrassing moments, proud moments, and when they link to funny videos Personality Development Over the Life Span: Continuity, Change, and Coherence  Development – both continuity and as we grow from childhood into adulthood; we are saying that some personality aspects are the same, whereas other aspect are different  Continuity or consistency – the amount of a trait stays about the same  Personality change means that the amount of a trait is different – either increased or decreased, from what it was previously; dif is often of degree; an anxious, nervous child is not likely to become a clam, even-tempered adult  People may change or remain consistent compared to what they were like at a previous point in their lives or they may change or remain consistent in relation to their peers or some other comparison groups  Even when traits stay the same, we wouldn’t expect a trait to look the same at different points in the persons lives – exploring neighborhood vs extreme sports  Personality coherence – underlying trait stays the same but the way its expressed changes  Longitudinal study – take a bunch of people and follow them across their lives  Mena-level change affects nearly everybody as we grow from infancy to adulthood; individual change in personality – each persona changes in their unique way How Consistent Are People Over Time?  People become more consistent in their traits across their life span  Peak of consistency is about age 50; no periods of particularly dramatic personality change anywhere in their life course  Traits of the five factors start to become consistent at age 3 and increases in consistency until age 50  Meta-analyses – statistical summaries from many studies  Personality traits measured closer in time tend to be more similar than traits measured further apart in time  About 29% of the variance in your personality at one point in time can be explained by your personality at another point in time  Personality shows small, gradual changes with age  Psychologists believe that personality is like an open system, it can change throughout life in response to events and environments; one our personalities respond to accommodate these new experiences, we tend to remain at this new level of the development for the remainder of our lives How Much Do People Change in General?  Asking about a normative change – a change that affects everybody  Period of greatest normative change occurs between 20 and 40 years of age  O increases early in life, and declines in old age, suggesting that maybe we cant teach an old dog new tricks  Emotional stability increases in early life and remains constant whereas A increases later in life; A and C continue to rise into old age  Except for O and social vitality, which decreased with age suggesting that we experience less positive emotions and sociability, all of the other traits became more positive with age; as we age, we become more self-confident, agreeable, emotionally stable and conscientious  Women, but not men, were more emotionally stable after 30, and people were less open in old age  A certain amount of change is due to maturation – we develop higher levels of assertiveness, self-control, responsibility, and emotional stability – may be the result of positive experiences in work and personal relationships  Once we choose an environment or role, the new situation reinforces these aspects of our personalities; most common effect of life experiences on personality is that our choices strengthen the very personality traits that selected themselves in the first place  By making plans and acting on them, we both express and develop our personalities, often without awareness oh how we’ve changed  People respond to devastating situations with more of their true selves – individual difs are magnified when people face unpredictable or ambiguous situations without guidelines for how to respond How and Why do Individuals Develop in Their Own Particular Ways?  By taking a stand against socializing roles, some people expose themselves to dif experiences, and missed out on the kinds of personality traits linked to important outcomes in work, health, mental illness, and longevity  We do not merely react to life experiences, but we may internalize them and become changed by then bit by bit until over longer periods of time we become permanently changed by them  Personality change in midlife was associated with successful adaptation to the day to day concerns of this periods of life: well-being of family members, work stress, and life satisfaction  Among men who were high in neuroticism, those who were changing to become less neurotic, lived longer than men whose neuroticism was increasing Where Does Adult Personality Come From?  Differing temperaments = individual differences  There is little doubt that childhood temperaments predict adult personality  By age 3, children have developed individual differences in behavior that are manifested as personality differences by age 18 and last to at least age 26 PSYB30H3 – Personality Psychology Then and Now: The Grant Study of Harvard Graduates  Study of
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