DORIC ORDER x IONIC ORDER
Everything above the column is the Entablature; Doric order has triglyph’s that punctuate in
between the Metope which were sculpted. Doric order is shorter, simpler and more manly ionic is
taller and slender and is more feminine as curves tied to culture of Ionia. Doric columns had no
base, had capitals in two parts, a square flat slab the ABACUS, above the cushion like
ECHINUS. Above both Doric and Ionic capitals came the Entablature in three parts: the
architrave, the frieze, and the CORNICE. Architrave has a narrow projecting band (a taenia) at
the top, and to which were attached small rectangular shelves (regulae) w pegs (guttae) fixed to
their undersides. The frieze comprised an alternating series of TRIGLYPHS (upright members
each with three bars conventionally thought to represent the translation into stone of carpentry
prototypes) and metopes (frequently decorated). The cornice provided a horizontal capping
member on the flanks of the uilding, and a combination of horizontal and angled members to
frame the gables at the ends. The ends gables (the PEDIMENTS) were often decorated with
sculpture, at first in relief, but by the end of the period entirely in the round, standing on the floor
of the pedimental triangle. Annulets were usually painted blue and red, the taenia was red, regulae
blue, guttae unpainted, triglyphs blue, backgrounds of carved metopes red or plain, background to
pediment sculpture blue. Ionic columns had more vertical flutes on its columns than the Doric. A
flat fillet separates flutes. In the Ionic capital, the two volutes are joined, seemingly pressed down
with carved decorative MOLDING beneath, and palmettes are relegated to corners beneath them.
Sometimes a narrow abacus above supports the entablature. Most important feature is the frieze,
which is continuous sometimes carved with figures. Ionic order has more ornament and variety.
Doric is more integrated and sturdier. Doric is popular on the mainland of Greece in the West, and
Ionic among the Greeks in the East (Asia Minor) and in the islands.
Typical Plan of a Doric temple
Columns surround all four sides, peristyle (all around). Cella/Naos means room, Greek temple is
not a temple without a statue of a god. Front always faces east to be illuminated by sun since
there are no windows. Greeks cared more abt everything around the temple rather then always
orienting it to one direction. Pronaos is the front entrance. Opistho Domos is closed off and at the
back. A box for the cult statue, the cella, was preceded by a porch (PRONAOS).
OPISTHODOMOS = back chamber.
Parthenon, Athens, view from the northwest. 447–432 BC. PENTELIC marble
Parthenon Is also a treasury. Athena’s extremities are in ivory and outside is gold.
Greek Temple Plan
Parthenon looks similar to Doric plan, colonnades on all four sides. 2 set of columns span whole
length looks like two rows of columns from outside. The Cella is the main room where the cult
statue stands is divided into sections. Also shortens span roof has to cover. Reflecting pool on the
left. Adyton is peculiar to Parthenon it is a back room, no access from the front and we don’t
know what it was used for most people think it was used for cult or ritual activity. Opisthodomos
has treasures and goodies. Interior of Greek temples wasn’t always for everyone. Athena’s statue
looked like her true appearance appearing before humans. Most cult activity that surrounds Greek
temple is on the outside. On the bottom is an elevation rendering.
East Facade of the Parthenon, with a 9 by 4 rectangle inscribed Architect: Iktinos and
Kallikrates NUMEROLOGY 9:4 2n+1. Intercolumniation: column diameter = 9:4 column
#’s = 2n+1 “Octastyle”
Iktinos is the architect and Killikrates is more like the site engineer. Golden ratio isn’t used.
Instead it’s the ratio 9:4 throughout the building. Shown both in the front and top of the plan. Its
called an Octastyle building cuz it has 8 columns on the side is 17 which 2 times 9 plus one.
Diameter of the column at the base, from the center of one column to the next is 9 to 4. Curvature
of the Stylobate last of the first steps the steps above it are also curved so the center is higher. 3
4cm? Subtle effect. Everything is modified according to this curvature. Columns are not standing
straight they all lean inward by cm? The four corner columns are slightly thicker than the rest.
Petruvious says its because the sky is eating away at the corner column. 92 Doric friezes all four
sides have different themes.
Parthenon North frieze: Riders
Procession of cavalry riding horses in one direction. Sacrificial victims – animals more lively
humans look bored, expressionless, symbol of 5th centaury calm and reason whereas animals are
contrasted to this the horses are veiny.
E IV: Hera and Zeus(left) E V: Athena and Poseidon. Parthenon Frieze (East): Folding of the peplos for Athena. Top Hera and Zeus council of the gods seated figures. Away from the
central figure, women carry baskets. (Bottom) Bearded man helps younger figure fold a garment,
which is most likely a peplos. Controversy as to weather it’s a myth or reality. Group of Athenian
maidens selected to move to Athens. Athena would be given a new set of clothes. Frieze most
likely representation of procession or mythological scene. Continuous Ionic frieze. Generic
Panathenaic procession in which front end calumniated with Olympian gods witnessing actual
preparation of peplos. 2D continuous frieze.
E VI: Poseidon, Apollo, Artemis
In this scene, a bearded Poseidon talks quietly with Apollo while Artemis absentmindedly adjusts