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Study Guide

[JAV131H1] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (29 pages long)


Department
Architecture Studies
Course Code
JAV131H1
Professor
Hans Ibelings
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
JAV131H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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JAV131H1 Introduction to Architecture: Lecture 1
Are buildings that you cannot enter considered architecture?
If they are too small or can’t be entered, are they still considered architecture?
Are objects architecture?
Cultural intentions vs. Pragmatic intentions – there is always a pragmatic intention for
architecture, and if not there is no need for a building
Architecture without professional architects are known as vernacular
You can look at anything in terms of architecture (ex. Buildings in Las Vegas)
Architecture in words and images:
1. Drawings
2. Plans and Section (plan is cut horizontally, looking up; section is a vertical cut,
looking from the left or right into the building); every plan is a horizontal section,
but not every section is a plan
3. Elevation (flat and looking into the building)
Architectural History
Was and often still is Eurocentric
In the Eurocentric understanding, it has two formative moments
1. 15th century: Leon Battista Alberti was the first to distinguish the design of a
building from the construction of a building  therefore the role of the architect
became to make a design, not a building
2. 19th century: Professionalization of the discipline  everything around the
discipline (faculties, association) did not exist until this century
Architecture in the course
Western/European bias
Designed by architects
With cultural intentions
Part of a “conversation” in words and images
If it is not designed by architects and/or without cultural intentions, it can still be a part
of the conversation as long as it is looked at through a lens of architecture
Events
The relevance of events is determined by what happened afterwards
Historical events have to be packaged in a story to be able to function as facts
Exceptional historical events that have become historical facts
Modern Architecture: the Modern Era
Started in the 20th century
1914-1991 Short Century (WWI-collapse of USSR)
1890-2001 Long Century
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1890- Eiffel Tower, first skyscrapers
1810- Crystal Palace
1750- beginning of the industrial revolution
1450- Alberti and the architect as a designer
Specific European Circumstances
Agricultural Revolution (17th century) – needed mechanizations like the seed drill to be
more efficient
Scientific Revolution (18th century) – James Watt’s steam engine circa 1765
Industrial Revolution (19th century) – James Howe Carse, Oldham, England, 1831
French Revolution (1789) – origin of the modern civil society
Agricultural Revolution
Labor surplus  migration to the city  industrial labor force  urbanization  colonialism
Cultural colonialism spread the concept of architecture
Cerda
“Ruralize the urban, urbanize the rural” – Cerda, 1867
Believed in the scientific aspect of planning
Believes there was a scientific logic behind the blocks he made in the city
Cities to note:
New York – building of a new city
Barcelona – urbanizing the rural land around the city while maintaining some of its rural
character
Paris – transforming the existing city through demolition
Vienna – connecting the city through ring roads, creates a new connection
Cities as a collective product
Paris and Barcelona  attributed to a single person (Haussman, Cerda)
New York and Vienna  Not attributed to a single designer; the plan as actor, the
emperor Franz Joseph
Form follows function  Louis Sullivan 1896
Three Crucial Materials:
Glass, steel, concrete
Lecture Summary (1850-1900):
Architecture: in words and images, professionals, cultural intentions
Modern societies/modern cities: new needs  urban housing, public institutions
Comprehensive plans for complete cities: New York, Paris, Barcelona, Vienna
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