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[BIO220H1] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 110 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO220H1
Professor
John Stinchcombe
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
BIO220H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIO220 lecture 1
Inheritance ensures transmission of information across generations
Mitochondria = own DNA
All individuals have mitochondria
All plants have chloroplasts
Sex chromosomes = humans and fruit flies
High recombination & crossing over in gametes will have different effects on genes on
chromosomes
In region of low recombination = genes are inherited together
But in high recombination region = the genes can be inherited independently because
of crossing over which it can dissociated from its neighboring gene
There are different modes on transmission and inheritance
Uniparental
Bi-Parental
Bi-Parental genome can infer the contributions of each parents
Fluid social system in elephants:
o Estrous receptive in their reproductive cycle phase
Elephants are attracted to the females in that phase
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2
Do Elephants avoid inbreeding?
hypothesis:
o Elephants evolved inbreeding depression avoidance
o Elephants did not evolve inbreeding avoidance because inbreeding
depression is weak and male reproductive success is highly variable
Elephants gestation period is 22 months and their lifespan is 62 years, therefore direct
measuring of inbreeding depression is impossible
We use: GENETIC MARKERS
Litmus test:
1) Observe behavior
2) Asses if behaviors are directed away from kin
3 potential outcomes if elephants have evolved inbreeding avoidance:
1) In family groups, behavior towards non-relatives
2) Male elephants have evolved, directing their reproductive behavior away from
their relatives
Results hold for paternal relatives, males able to avoid reproducing with half-
sisters (if same father)
elephant males compete for females even though some of them don’t have
reproductive success and so their fitness is 0 they are still avoiding reproducing with
relatives which suggests that inbreeding depression is very strong
OBSERVATIONS:
- Some wolf populations migrate and some don’t, why?
Are the wolves different ecotypes? Do they show genetic differentiation are neutral
markers?
What’s the ecological force that’s leading to the migration differences?
Is there gene flow between northern wolves and the southern residents? (molecular tools)
the spatial separation suggests that there is genetic differentiation
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