Readings Questions and Key Terms w/ Answers and Defintions - up until March 28

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University of Toronto St. George
Victoria Wohl

January 10 Terms and Names: Geography and Topography of Greece - Wood from bulgariamacedonia - What from Egypt - Tin from Italy - Where there is economic exchange there is cultural exchange - Greeks dependent on sea - Sea-faring - Source of food - Source of power - Athens had largest navy - Power went to rowers as they were in charge of the boats YET they were slaves :. Democracy - only 20-30% is arable - Stables of diet: - Grains (barley), olives, grapes - Living in Greece was hard work for average person and required constant hard labor - If you work har, pray and are morally upright you can make a decent living and stay alive - communication between parts of Greece was difficult - Had to go up and over the mountains - nationality thought of first in terms of city-state - Im a spartan, Im an athenian, etc A brief history of early Greece Mycenaean Period: c. 1600-1200 BCE - Linear B - It is greek but with a different alphabet - Mostly administrative documens - predated only by Minoan which has undeciphered alphabet (Linear A) - Very important for greeks for reflective purposes - Archaeological remains produced massive palaces - Very hierarchical society - Lots of tombs of great warrios = :. Prized warfare - Mystery as to why they went into decline - Perhaps drought, soil exhaustion, aliens - Palaces are abandoned, tombs show less wealth, people were malnourished (This was a wide-spread trend around mediterranean) Dark Ages: c. 1200-800 BCE - Poorer tombs - Malnourished - Decreased population - Smaller settlements - Average village had about 20 people - During this period Linear B was lost - No written communication during this period - Oral tradition through singers, kept mycenaean culture alive - Formed basis for lIliad, Odyssey - Heinrich Schliemann - Closely read lIliad and mapped by features in poem - Digs where he thinks it will be and finds a mycenaean palace Archaic Period: c. 750-500 BCE - Healthier people living to a better age - Greek colonization - Increased wealth - Rise of a powerful aristocracy - Reintroduction of writing! (750 BC) - Syllabary language - Every symbol represented a syllable - rise of the polis (plural: poleis) - City-states - Communites that were the size of a city but functioned as a state Classical Period: c. 490-323 BCE January 12 Reading Questions: What purpose is Pericles trying to achieve with this speech? (There may be more than one.) Who is in his audience? - Generic speech - does not refer to specific examples or hard details about the war as when you go into detail you reveal mistakes - Pericles goal was to reveal greek ideals - Hes not honoring dead as much as he is encouraging the living What are the ideal qualities of the Athenian citizen, as Pericles describes him? How does he display those qualities? - Kalokagathia beauty and goodness nobility (social and moral) - All athenians become elites, no division between rich and poor - Defined against others - Eleutheria - all athenians are free and masters of themselves - Andreia - bravery, military courage, manliness - Defining quality of Athenians - free - Open - Unique Loyal - Rational - Courageous - Moderate - Generous - Noble - Democratic - Athens is described in relation to the other (sparta). - Every athenian is born with all these qualities from the earth - our forefathers expanded the land and we sprung out of it - Were all bole as we sprung from the same noble ground - bringing up all citizens to noble status - Eliminates vision of demos as poor slobs and avoiding vision of aristocrats as effete and excessive - between those two extremes he define athenians as equal - All athenians are equal because they are equally free - Contrasts athenian soldiers to spartan soldiers - Spartans labour to develop courage, athenians have it naturally - Ironic as the funeral oration is a kind of lesson in bravery - Athenian bravery due to rationality - They were not brave out of stupidity but because they know how to live What (or whom) does this speech ignore or brush to one side? - Women: - Neither of the aforementioned qualities - Women can never be ideal athenian as they cannot enter battle and die on the field for athens - your great glory is not to be inferior to your issue - Greatest glory is not to be talked about whether for good or bad - Ideal man in greek culture is kleos - Have immortal girlie - Be talked about forever - Contrast for women as the best they can achieve is no reputation at all What differences did you notice between Athenian society, as Pericles depicts it here, and modern Canadian society? What similarities do you see? Terms and Names: Autochthony: being born from the earth itself - Athenians believed both that they were born from the earth (that they were autochthonous) and that they were the children of Athena (myth of Athena and Hephaistos; Erichthonios) - This had implications for the way they viewed themselves and others. - Hephaestus jizzed on athenas leg
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