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All lectures and explanations until March 25

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University of Toronto St. George
Corina Sandu

French Civilization History: Jan 14 2011: Lecture I Denition of culture- books, movies, art, pop culture, everything from human beings, social activities, study of past and present culture Cultural Dimensions: historical/ political, artistic, literary, social Cultural transmitters: co-agents who allow society to participate in cultural information, and social activities Development if the press--periodicals, newspapers, photography, lm, etc. ***Focus: examine cultural markers and movements De-Christenization--emphasis on liberty Jan 21 2011: Lecture II Napoleonic Era -1st his inuence was not restricted to political including art, and fashion -2nd his status was very quickly elevated Legend or myth of Napoleon began in 1804: -made by the mark of his military command. - crowned emperor of France in 1804, and banished in 1814 and exiled to Villa Mulini on Elba During his 10 years of rule: his accomplishments were (1804-1814) -reorganized French Society -Instated a prefect in all institutions -Creation of banks -Conquered areas outside of French His brother Joseph was King of Naples, and later the thrown of Spain, and his other brother was given Holland On March 15 1815, Napoleon returned to France and reconquered France without a single shot taken, which was called the hundred days Eagles was a symbol associated with the Empire, and was thought highly by Napoleon During the hundred days Napoleon put forth a Charter which provided for a house of elections However, despite of Napoleons peace motives, he was defeated in the battle of Waterloo Napoleon lived the rest of his life at Saint Helena where he wrote his memoirs, which showed his beliefs Napoleon represented himself through iconography as a charismatic leader he did this through the romantic movement which lasted until 1820 The movement began in Italy and returned to the ideas in the original Greek and Roman movement in antiquity -began a new model of democratic movement -wanted ideals not ashy -left out idiocy -all art was simple, physical shape, which Napoleon liked Gros: - shared a studio with important painters - Painted Napoleons victories - After a revolution in 1830, by a struggle in the streets romanticism was replaced - He committed suicide because he could not take failure - Napoleon went to Egypt to counter British occupation - Napoleon did not have great success in Egypt, but orchestrated his legend very well showing scientic and legendary stories - Napoleon took Paul with him and gured out how to read hieroglyphics - Coins of Napoleon were similar to that in Roman and Greek antiquity equating himself to Roman and Greek gods like an emperor Jan 28 Lecture III Napoleon s liberal ideas was so inuential to the extent that it went beyond poltical and societal but it revilitized the textile industry which lacked compared to Englands Empress Jospehine was a very great fashion icon and was inuenced by Classical Greek robes the imagery inspired by Napolon worked towards the mythologization of the Emperor Napolons liberal reforms developed and strengthened the myth Napolon perceived as the defender of republicanism From 1800 to 1900: 7 different political regimes Political climate of the 19 century unstable authoritarian & liberal governments aspiration towards a democratic government 1800- consulate 1804--Empire 1815--(included in 100 days) Restoration. 1- Louis XVIII 2- Charles X 1830-July 27, 28, 29(uprising in Paris)which is the three glorious days-July Monarchy 1848-revolution which spread across Europe--SECOND REPUBLIC 1852--SECOND EMPIRE 1871-THIRD REPUBLIC There was a problematic status of women who were given the right to vote and divorce in 1814 IMPORTANT THINKERS: Saint-Simon, Fourier (utopian socialists) Lamennais (Catholic socialism) Proudhon (socialism against the State) Louis Blanc (social workshops) Karl Marx (historical materialism) There was an industrial Revolution that began to appear in the 19th century Literacy began to increase amongst lower class so publications began to increase and became cheaper Scientic knowledge spread through the population Rural areas depopulated New class: the bourgeoise -As France grew from rural to urban values changed -working class grew to poverty -Increases inside of bourgeoise came a dissemination of information(newspaper, etc) -no more texts with classical references, no more long treatises -preferred genres: poetry, theatre, novels during the revolution, which began a new type of literature from a new class ofterature readers: poetry, theatre, novels, etc. such as Notre Dame and Three Muskiteers Major 19 century literary movement in France Romanticism Realism / Naturalism Symbolism Inuences on the French Romanticism External inuences: Germany: Goethe (Faust, poetry) England: Sir Walter Scott (novel) Wordsworth Byron Coleridge (Lyrical Ballads, 1799 Internal inuences The pre-romantic writers: - Jean-Jacques Rousseau - LAbb Prvost, Manon Lescaut, Characteristics of romantics Feelings and imagination over intellect Overow of lyricism and feelings Communion with the natural world Rejection of the classical mode In opposition of clarity, and reason Romanticism = Liberalism The success of an artist relies on the theory of their classical ideas Romantic Temperament Passion over reason Chaos over order Introspection over objectivity Creates: Mal du siede-- resulted in attempts of suicide which threatens romantic movement Importance of individual, self-interest, self-centered, is the thinking of the protagonist A dichotomy is established between a hero and society and reject the rules/ values of society The romantic hero is isolated into a world where he lives in harmony of nature The spirituality of the romantic hero is no completely linked to religion but God, and there are scenes of nature: storm clouds, etc. Major Romantic Poets Alfred Vigny (1797-1863) Pariahs of the post-revolution society He never knew the excitement of the military because he moved from one garrison to another He spent his free time in artistic pursues He left the army to become a poet He experienced many devastation because of his moms death and his break up with Marie Dorval He became a hermit afterwards and wrote his most famous poem Les Destinees (post humous poems), he is the most philosophical, man is condemned to suffer, man suffers in dignity, God left him, etc Alfred de Musset (1810- 1857) atudied law, music, art, and pursued literature he became the enfant terrible of the Romantic school the poems are intensely personal and darkly pessimistic confession dun enfant du siede (1836): movie Les Enfants du siede 1999) He had a passionate love affair with George Sand
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