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GGR246H1 (9)

Study guide for all the readings for the midterm

32 Pages
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Joseph Laydon

Pages 3-27 Regional Geography Study of a particular part of the world People interacting with their economic, physical and social environments place their imprint on the landscape Finding out what makes a region tick Geographers place more emphasis on the human side because the physical environment is largely mediated through culture, economy and technology Regional self interest results in conflicts with other regions Origins of Geographic Thought Ancient Greeks Geographers refer to regional identities as a sense of place In Canada, there is no longer a sense of place from the Quebecios, considering they perceive their place in Canada as more of a partnership and some seek independence from Canada; division of languages Canadas Geographic Regions Towards the margins of a region, its core characteristics become less distinct and merge with those characteristics of a neighbouring region Six geographic regions: o Atlantic Canada o Quebec o Ontario o Western Canada o British Columbia o Territorial North This is because Canada is quite large and needs to be divided into a set of manageable segments, effort has been made to balance these regions by their geographic size, economic importance and population size which allows for comparisons Canada, British Columbia and Quebec all are separate regions because they have the geographic size, economic importance and population size to form a separate region. They also are: o Readily understood by Canadians o Associated with distinctive physical features, natural resources and economic activities o Reflect the political structure of Canada o Facilitate the use of statistical data o Contain a sense of regional identity o Reveal regional economic strengths and cultural presence Faultlines within Canada Stresses within Canadian society Four major faultlines since Canada became a nation: o English and French o Centralist and Decentralist o Old and new Canadians o Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal By seeking a compromise between these differing positions, Canada has become a soft country, meaning a society where conflicts are more often than not resolved through discussion and negotiations Canada is evolving at a more rapid rate than other countries; four factors that contribute to this rapid change: o Population and economic power shifting from Atlantic Canada, Quebec and even Ontario to Alberta and British Columbia- because of a slowdown in manufacturing centered in Ontario and Quebec o Pluralism in Canada: expanding phenomenon because of the flood of non-Western immigrants into Canada- adjustments and accommodation of the new-comers and their culturalreligious practices are necessary for continued social harmony o Aboriginal people: outstanding land claims, rapidly growing aboriginal population and increasing numbers of Native peoples in Canadian cities are three issues that require attention o In 2006, the House of Commons declared that the Quebecios are a nation within Canada Canada must accommodate the new cultures arriving in Canada and grip its core values while necessarily reinventing itself to meet new circumstances English-speakingFrench speaking Canadians Within Quebec, an internal faultline exists between separatists and federalists Separatists argue that Quebec cant fulfill its aspirations unless it becomes a nation Federalists say that Quebec can best flourish within the Canadian federation In 1977, bill 101 proclaimed French as the official language in Quebec for just about every facet of life: government, advertising, and business. In 1982, the Supreme Court struck down this bill but it was overturned later by using the notwithstanding clause CentralistDecentralist Faultline Most of the 30 million people in Canada live or work in Ontario and Quebec, in which both house the most manufacturing activities in Canada Other regions need the support of Ontario and Quebec in order to form a political majority and without strong support they feel powerless The feeling of powerlessness is the source of regional alienation- Alberta fears that Ottawa will intrude into provincial power over natural resources Aboriginal Peoples and the Non-Aboriginal Majority Aboriginals have had to deal with the settlement of their lands, subjugation as colonized peoples and with Ottawas restrictive Indian Act Aboriginals form the largest proportion of the population in the Territorial north and in the northern areas of the other geographic regions Newcomers and Old-timers Early French and English settlers had a very difficult time adjusting to the New World th In the early 20 century, immigrants came to settle the prairie lands of Western Canada It was difficult for non-English speaking immigrants from Central Europe and Russia to gain a sense of rootedness and home Old-timers were not always prepared to give ground and sometimes react strongly to protect their status quo Second generation of immigrant groups born and raised in Canada had a much easier time feeling connected to Canada- those Chinese born in Canada had a cultural gap Most immigrants now come from non-European countries which has made integration more difficult, especially for visible minorities who may face racial discrimination Muslims must deal with the fallout from 911 Concentration of immigrants in big cities has advantages and disadvantages: (+) Newcomers have more cultural anchors to support them, such as
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