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Final Exam Review Guide.docx

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The final exam for this course is set for Tuesday, Dec. 13, from 9AM-12PM in HW 216. The exam will begin promply at 9:00AM. (n.b.: if you arrive at 9:10, you will be 10 minutes late!) The final exam will consist of three sections: ID's (4 at 10 points each), short answer questions (3 at 20 points each), and an essay question (1 at 40 points), for a total of 140 points possible. The format for the first two sections will be exactly the same as the midterm; the format for the essay section is discussed below. Section I: Identifications (4 identifications from a choice of 6, worth 10 points each, for a total of 40 points for this section). 2 sentences to explain definition, 3 sentences to explain significance In this section you will be asked to explain in one paragraph some of the key terms/concepts we have encountered in this course. Terms/concepts will be drawn from the entire course. You will be asked to (a) define each term and (b) explain its philosophical/moral significance. The best way to explain a term's significance is by relating it to the philosophical debate(s) in which it plays an important role. . You will given 6 terms, from which you will have to choose and identify 4. The terms will be drawn from the following list: 1. Autonomy 2. Beneficence 3. Utility 4. Justice 5. Distributive Justice 6. Moral Relativism 7. Moral Universalism 8. Consequentialism 9. Non-consequentialism (or Deontology) 10. Utilitarianism 11. Act-Utilitarianism 12. Rule-Utilitarianism 13. Kant's Ethics 14. The Ethics of Care 15. Paternalism 16. Weak Paternalism 17. Strong Paternalism 18. Medical Futility 19. Mill's Harm Principle 20. Truth-telling 21. Confidentiality 22. Informed Consent 23. Therapeutic Privilege 24. Competence 25. Abortion 26. Therapeutic Abortion 27. Human Being (or biological personhood) an entity that is biologically human, a member of the genetically distinct human species 28. Person (or moral personhood) an entity having all the psychological attributes and capacities that we normally associate with the possession of full moral rights 29. Right to Life 30. In-Vitro Fertilization uniting a sperm and egg in a lab dish, and transplanting the embryo inside a womans body. Helps people overcome infertility. But it is expensive and its success rates are much lower than most people think 31. Surrogacy gestation of a fetus by a woman for others, usually for a couple or another woman. She contracts with them to carry the pregnancy to term, to relinquish the baby at birth, and to let them legally adopt it. Arguments about surrogacy cluster around reproductive autonomy and alleged harm to children, families, and women. The most pervasive argument is that surrogacy arrangements amount to baby-selling, a blatant affront to human dignity. This charge is usually made against commercial surrogacy, in which money changes hands, not against altruistic surrogacy) 32. Commercial Surrogacy gestation of a fetus by a woman for others, usually for a couple or another woman. She contracts with them to carry the pregnancy to term, to relinquish the baby at birth, and to let them legally adopt it, in exchange in the form of payment. This amounts to baby-selling, a blatant affront to human dignity. Critics say it substitutes market norms for some of the norms of parental love. Most importantly, it requires us to understand parental rights no longer as trusts but as things more like property rights, that is, rights to use and disposal over the things owned. Defenders claim the surrogate is simply relinquishing her right as a parent to have a relationship with the child. She is not selling an existing close relationship with someone, but rather selling/forfeiting the right to enjoy a future parent-child relationship. 33. Genetic Parenthood relationship between the fetus and its biological parents whom made contributions of the sperm and egg that matured into the fetus. IVF and surrogacy both involve genetic parenthood. The fetus can have 34. Gestational Motherhood 35. Social Parenthood. 36. Euthanasia the direct or indirect of bringing about the death of another person for that persons sake. moral rightness of killing or letting die for the good of the patient. doctors and nurses have sworn to preserve life and relieve suffering, but this cannot be done when the only way to end suffering is to end life. they understand the need to respect patient autonomy, the right of self- determination, but what if patient freely chooses to forgo all their best effortsand to embrace extinction? Active and passive euthanasia, former is thought of as killing, latter as letting die. For many, passive euthanasia may be moral, but active euthanasia is not. Some think that euthanasia may be morally right or wrong, but rightness or wrongness does not depend purely on this active- passive divide. If euthanasia in some form is morally permissible, its permissibility must be linked to the patients consent. There is considerable agreement about the moral rightness of allowing a patient to die but intense controversy about the permissibility of deliberately causing a patients death, whether voluntary or nonvoluntary in both cases of euthanasia. 37. Active Euthanasia involves performing an action that directly causes someone to die what most people think of as mercy killing. Ex: giving a patient a lethal injection to end his suffering. There is active voluntary (directly causing death mercy killing with the consent of the patient) and active nonvoluntary (directly causing death mercy killing without the consent of the patient) euthanasias. Arguments around this issue have been centred on the principle of autonomy and the principle of beneficence. Respecting autonomous persons means respecting their autonomous choices, including the choice to end their lives in their own way. And if we are in a position to relieve the severe suffering of another without excessive cost to ourselves, we have a duty to do so. To refuse would be cruel, inhumane, and wrong. 38. Passive Euthanasia allowing someone to die by not doing something that
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