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[PSY100H1] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (87 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
PSY100H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1.2- How Psychology Became a Science
Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins:
- Empiricism: philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience
o Knowledge is based on observation and is consistent (other people should come to
same conclusion when performing same procedures)
- Determinism: belief that all events are governed by consistent cause-and-effect
relationships
o Ex. Gravity- we drop something, it will always fall to the ground
o Free will versus Determinism- does this consistent pattern apply to our thoughts
and actions?
Behaviour is governed by internal & external influences
- Historical Philosophical Insights into Behaviour:
o Hippocrates (460-370 BCE) developed first personality classification scheme
4 humours flowed throughout body, influencing health & personality
Blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm
o Galen of Pergamon (127-217) revised Hippocrates’ work
Combination of 4 humours created temperaments (continuous emotional
& personality characteristics)
Sanguine (blood)- impulsive, pleasure-seeking, charismatic
Choleric (yellow bile)- ambitious, energetic, aggressive
Melancholic (black bile)- independent, perfectionistic, introverted
Phlegmatic (phlegm)- quiet, relaxed, content
o Zeitgeist: beliefs of a culture at a specific time period
Reason why psychology didn’t take off as a science during scientific
revolution- people weren’t ready to accept science applied to human
behaviour & thought
o Materialism: belief that things are composed of exclusively physical matter
Implied (to the people of the past) that people lacked a soul
- Influences from Physics
o Psychophysics: study of the relationship between physical and mental
representations of the world (Fechner)
Ex. The same increase in weight will feel heavier to a hand that was
carrying something lighter, than a hand that was carrying something
heavier
- Influences from Evolutionary Theory
o Charles Darwin: developed the theory of evolution by natural selection
o Selection favoured behaviour that promoted survival
Physical & behaviours are influenced by heredity and natural selection
- Influences from Medicine
o Clinical psychology: diagnoses and treats psychological disorders
o Brain localization: certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities &
personality characteristics
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Phrenology: Skull shape was reflective of the 27 “organs” that each had
specific mental functions
Gall & Spurzheim
Logic in that if person possessed a certain trait, the brain area
would be larger due to exercise.
Studying brain injuries: studying patients’ behaviours without (with
damage to, impairing the function of) an area of the brain
o Psychosomatic medicine: patient’s belief in the treatment allowed them to be
cured
o Psychoanalysis: approach to explain how behaviour and personality are
influenced by unconscious processes
Sigmund Freud
Consciousness: perceptions, thoughts, sense of self
Unconscious mind: forgotten episodes, urges to fulfil self-serving sexual
and aggressive impulses
Unconscious, so can affect behaviour n many strange ways
Major influence on psyshcology:
1. Unconscious mental activity
2. Using medical model to treat psychological disorders
3. Evolutionary thinking: needs & urges relate to survival &
reproduction
4. Early life experiences influence behaviour as adults
- Influence of Social Sciences:
o Developed statistical methods for measuring human traits
o Sir Francis Galton
Genetics explained psychological differences among people
Ex. Great achievement tended to fun in families
Eminence: combination of ability, morality and achievement
First to scientifically investigate relationship b/w nature and nurture: how
heredity and environment influence behaviour and mental processes
Galton was a nature supporter (ignoring that wealthy families =
better upbringing, and people do rise up from humble beginnings)
Became supporter of eugenics: people with good genes should have more
children
The Beginnings of Contemporary Psychology:
- Structuralism and Functionalism (1850-)
o Wilhelm Wundt: established psychology as independent scientific field
First lab studying human behaviour
Introspection: volunteer experience stimuli, and report each individual
sensation
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