•False fame effect: when you can recall someone is famous but not know why or think someone
is famous when they really are not!
•Implicit memory is involved in repetition priming: improvement in identifying and processing a
stimulus that has been previously experienced. Experiment: showing people words, and them giving
them blanks, people more likely to say the words previously exposed to rather than other words.
•LTM is a temporal sequence:
•Memory can be divided into three processes:
1.Encoding- our perceptual experience is transferred into representations, or codes, which are
stored. An example, would be sensing a shaggy four-legged animal, and perceiving “dog” dog=code
2.Storage- retention of encoded representations over time, stored representations are memories.
3.Retrieval- recalling or remembering stored info (both explicit + implicit)
•Memories are stored by meaning. The more deeply an item is encoded, the more meaning it has.
Diff. types of rehearsal lead to diff. encoding:
1.Maintenance rehearsal- repeating item over and over
2.Elaborative rehearsal- encoding info in a meaningful way (thinking about it!)
•Things processed at a deep level (elaborative rehearsal) are recalled + remembered better!
•Schemas- hypothetical cognitive structures that help perceive, organize, process, and use info.
•Schemas help make sense of the world altering a story with missing details (people change
story to fit their OWN cultural standpoint, example in class!!)
•When we link things to things we already know (instructions about laundry). Aristotle- our
knowledge of the world is organized so that things that naturally go together are linked together in
•Networks of associations- base of theories of memory organization. A unit of info in the
network is called node, when one node is activated others are too (called the spreading activation
model!) The closer the nodes, the stronger the association. (ex: sunrise and sunset or apple and cherry)
•The semantic network of association is organized in a hierarchical way easy access to info
•Retrieval cues- access infro from LTM easier to regonize (seeing smthg) info then recall it!
•Encoding Specificty principle: a stimulus that is encoded along with experience can trigger
memory (studying in the same room as giving your test will help you do better, example from class!!
This enhancement of memory is called context-dependant memory, things like odours, music,