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PSY100 Quick Test 2 Review.pdf

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Dan Dolderman

PSY100  Quick  Review  Chapter  7-­‐10,  12,  16     Chapter  7     Memory  –  the  nervous  system’s  capacity  to  acquire  and  retain  usable  skills  and   knowledge   NOTE:  Attention  is  the  ability  to  focus  on  important  or  relevant  information.   Attention  is   limited,  and  when  divided  among  many  tasks,  performance  suffers     Parallel  processing  –  allows  us  to  process  information  from  different  visual  features  at   the  same  time  by  focusing  on  targets  (targets  vs  distractors)   NOTE:  serial  (look  at  stimuli  one  at  a  time),  effortful  (takes  longer  and  requires  more   attention),  conjunction  task  (looking  for  stimulus  made  up  of  at  least  two  simple   features)     Auditory  Attention  Allows  Selective  Listening   Cocktail  party  phenomenon:  you  can  focus  on  a  single  conversation  in  the  midst  of  a   chaotic  cocktail  party,  yet  just  hearing  your  name  mentioned  in  another  conversation  can   capture  your  attention.  You  decide  to  listen  to  the  conversation  and  block  out  your   friend.   • Shadowing:  receive  different  auditory  messages  but  only  repeat  one  message     Change  blindness  –  the  common  failure  to  no tice  large  changes  in  environments     Basic  Stages  of  Memory                                         Working  Memory  is  Active   Short-­‐term  memory  (STM)  –  a  limited  capacity  memory  system  that  holds  information   in  awareness  for  a  brief  period   Working  memory  (WM)  –  an  active  processing  system  that  keeps  different  types  of   information  available  for  current  use   • Immediate  memory     Memory  Span  and  Chunking   • Memory  span   =  WM  can  hold  a  limited  amount  of  information   • Chunking  –  organizing  information  into  meaningful  units  to  make  it  easier  to   remember     WM’s  Four  Parts                                       Long-­‐Term  Memory  is  Relatively  Permanent   • Long-­‐term  memory  (LTM)  –  the  relatively  permanent  storage  of  information   • Serial  position  effect  –  the  ability  to  recall  items  from  a  list  depends  on  order  of   presentation,  with  items  presented  early  or  late  in  the  list  remembered  better   than  those  in  the  middle           Explicit  Memory  Involves  Conscious  Effort   • Implicit  memory  –  the  system  underlying  unconscious  memories   • Explicit  memory  –  the  process  involved  when  people  remember  specific   information   • Declarative  memory  –  the  cognitive  information  retrieved  from  explicit   memory;  knowledge  that  can  be  declared   • Episodic  memory  –  memory  for  one’s  personal  past  experiences   • Semantic  memory  –  memory  for  knowledge  about  the  world     Implicit  Memory  Occurs  without  Deliberate  Effort   • False  fame  effect:  we  recognize  names,  and  are  likely  assume  it  belongs  to  a   famous  person   • Repetition  priming  –  the  improvement  in  identifying  or  processing  a  stimulus   that  has  been  experienced  previously   • Procedural  memory  (motor  memory)  –  a  type  of  implicit  memory  that   involves  motor  skills  and  behavioral  habits     Prospective  Memory  is  remembering  to  Do  Something     Prospective  memory  –  remembering  to  do  something  at  some  time  in  the  future       Long-­‐Term  Storage  is  based  on  Meaning   -­‐ perceptual  experiences  are  transformed  into  codes  which  are  stored   -­‐ memories  are  stored  representations   -­‐ Maintenance  rehearsal  –  repeating  the  item  over  and  over   -­‐ Elaborative  rehearsal  –  encodes  info  in  meaningful  ways       Schemas  Provide  an  Organizational  Framework   Schema  –  a  hypothetical  cognitive  structure  that  helps  us  perceive,  organize,  process,   and  use  information   NOTE:  schemas  construct  new  memories  by  filling  in  holes  within  existing  memories,   overlooking  inconsistent  information,  and  interpreting  meaning  based  on  past   experiences.  Schemas  help  us  make  sense  of  the  world,  but  also  lead  to  biased  encoding   because  culture  heavily  influences  schemas.     Information  is  Stored  in  Association  Networks                                     Retrieval  Cues  Provide  Access  to  Long-­‐Term  Storage   Retrieval  cue  –  anything  that  helps  a  person  (or  animal)  recall  information  from   memory   Encoding  specificity  principle  –  any  stimulus  that  is  encoded  along  with  an  experience   can  later  trigger  memory  for  the  experience   NOTE:  Context  dependent  memory–  memory  enhancement  based  on   physical  location,   background  music,  odour,  and  things  that  produce  a  sense  of  familiarity  (e.g.  learn   something  underwater,  later  tested  better  underwater  than  on  land).   State  dependent   memory  –  when  internal  states  match  during  encoding  and  recall  (e.g.  recall  things  you   did  when  you  were  drunk  when  you  are  drunk  again).     Brain  Processes  Involved  in  Memory   • Karl  Lashley  spent  much  of  his  career  to  localize  memory.   • Engram  –  physical  site  of  memory  storage   • Lashley  concluded  that  memory  is  distributed  throughout  the  brain  rather  than   confined  to  a  specific  location  (equipotentiality)    ok…but  wrong  !   • Donald  Hebb  suggested  that  neurons  that  “fire  together  wire  together”  (neuron   specialization)   • Not  all  brain  areas  are  equally  involved  in  memory   • Different  brain  regions  are  responsible  for  storing  different  aspects  of   information     Prefrontal cortex Hippocampus trained rats to run a maze, then removed different areas of their working memory spatial memory cortices.(On the cortex,and on brain regions discussed below such as the cerebellum and the amygdala,see FIGURE 7.20. )Intestinghow much of the maze learning the rats retained after the surgery, Lashley found that the size of the area removed rather than its loca- tion was most important in predicting retention. From these find- ings,he concluded that memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than confined to any specific location, an idea known as declarative memory equipotentiality. Lashley was partially right—memories are not stored in any one brain location—but in other ways he was quite wrong. Amygdala Memories are stored in multiple regions of the brain and linked fear learning through memory circuits, as proposed by the psychologist Donald Cerebellum and memoryon learning Hebb,who suggested that neurons that“fire together wire together” FIGURE 7.20 Brain Regions Associated  ee Chapter 6,“Learning”). Not all brain areas are equally involved with Memory in memory,however.A great deal of neural specialization occurs,such that different brain regions are responsible for storing different aspects of informa- tion.Indeed,different memory systems,such as declarative memory and procedural memory, use different brain regions. Lashley’s failure to find critical brain regions for memory is due to at least two factors. First, the maze task he used to study memory involved multiple sensory systems (such as vision and smell), so the rats could compensate for the loss of one by using other senses. Second, Lashley did not examine subcortical areas, which are now known to be important for mem- Medial  Temporal  Lobes  are  Important  for  Consolidation  of  Declarative  Memories   • Amygdala  and  hippocampus   • Damage  to  this  region  causes  anterograde  amnesia  (inability  to  store  new   explicit  memories)   • Immediate  memories  become  lasting  memories  through   consolidation   • Reconsolidation  –  neural  processes  involved  when  memories  are  recalled  and   then  stored  again  for  later  retrieval   • Spatial  memory  –  memory  for  the  physical  environment;  it  includes  thin gs  such   as  location  of  objects,  direction,  and  cognitive  maps  (mainly  hippocampus!)   • Amygdala  works  with  emotion.  Women  have  better  memory  than  men  for   emotional  events   • Post-­‐traumatic  stress  disorder  (PTSD)  –  a  mental  disorder  that  involves   frequent  nightmares,  intrusive  thoughts,  and  flashbacks  related  to  an  earlier   trauma     Forgetting   • Forgetting  –  the  inability  to  retrieve  memory  from  long -­‐term  storage   • Daniel  Schacter  identified  “the  seven  sins  of  memory” ,  the  first  three,  transience,   absentmindedness,  and  blocking,  are  related  to  forgetting     Transience  is  Caused  by  Interference   • Transience  –  the  pattern  of  forgetting  over  time   • most  forgetting  occurs  because  of  interference  from  other  information   • additional  information  can  lead  to  forgetting  through  proactive  or  retroactive   interference   • proactive  interference  –  when  prior  information  inhibits  the  ability  to   remember  new  information   • retroactive  interference   –  when  new  information  inhibits  the  ability  to   remember  old  information     Blocking  is  Temporary   Blocking  –  the  temporary  inability  to  remember  something  that  is  known   E.g.  tip-­‐of-­‐the-­‐tongue  phenomenon     Absentmindedness  Results  from  Shallow  Encoding   Absentmindedness  –  the  inattentive  or  shallow  encoding  of  events   e.g.  where  you  put  the  keys,  the  name  of  a  person  you  met  five  minutes  ago     Amnesia  is  a  Deficit  in  Long -­‐Term  Memory   • Amnesia  –  a  deficit  in  long-­‐term  memory,  resulting  from  disease,  brain  injury,  or   psychological  trauma   • Retrograde  amnesia  –  the  condition  in  which  people  lose  past  memories   • Anterograde  amnesia  –  an  inability  to  form  new  memories   • Damage  to  media  temporal  lobes  or  subcortical  areas  like  the  thalamus  can  lead   to  amnesia   • Long-­‐term  alcohol  abuse  can  lead  to  vitamin  deficiency  that  results  in  thalamic   damage  and,  subsequently,  amnesia     How  are  Memories  Distorted?   Flashbulb  Memories  can  be  Wrong   • Flashbulb  memories  –  vivid  memories  of  a  particularly  emotional  event  (eg.   9/11)   • Source  misattributions   –  the  misremembering  of  the  time,  place,  person,  or   circumstances  involved  with  a  memory  (e.g.  Cryptomnesia  –  occurs  when  a   person  thinks  he  or  she  has  come  up  with  a  new  idea,  yet  has  only  retrieved  a   stored  idea  and  failed  to  attribute  the  idea  to  its  proper  source)   • Suggestibility  –  the  development  of  biased  memories  when  people  are  provided   with  misleading  information   NOTE:  experiment  where  experimenters  framed  questions  based  on  cars   “smashing’  vs.  “contacting”  to  participants  who  viewed  a  videotape  of  a  car   accident     People  Have  False  Memories   • Source  amnesia  –  occurs  when  a  person  shows  memory  for  an  event  but  cannot   remember  where  he  or  she  encountered  the  information   • Confabulation  –  the  unintended  false  recollection  of  episodic  memory   • Memory  bias  –  the  changing  of  memories  over  time  in  ways  consistent  with   current  beliefs     How  Can  We  Improve  Learning  and  Memory?     Mnemonics  –  strategies  for  improving  memory       • Practice     • Elaborate  the  material   • Overlearn       • Get  adequate  sleep     • Use  verbal  mnemonics   • Use  visual  imagery         Chapter  8     Cognition  –  mental  activity  such  as  thinking  or  representing  information   Analogical  representatio n  –  a  mental  representation  that  has  some  of  the  physical   characteristics  of  an  object;  it  is  analogous  to  the  object   Symbolic  representation  –  an  abstract  mental  representation  that  does  not  correspond   to  the  physical  features  of  an  object  or  idea     Concepts  are  Symbolic  Representations   Concept  –  a  mental  representation  that  groups  or  categorizes  objects,  events,  or   relations  around  common  themes.   Defining  attribute  model  –  the  idea  that  a  concept  is  characterized  by  a  list  of  features   that  are  necessary  to  determine  if  an  object  is  a  member  of  the  category   NOTE:  how  we  organize  knowledge  in  branching  trees  like  taxonomy  models       Prototype  model  –  an  approach  to  object  categorization  that  is  based  on  the  premise   that  within  each  category,  some  members  are  m ore  representative  than  others   NOTE:  best  example  of  category   Exemplar  model  –  information  stored  about  the  members  of  a  category  is  used  to   determine  category  membership   NOTE:  all  members  of  category  are  “exemplars”       Schemas  Organize  Useful  Information  ab out  Environments   • Schemas  are  mental  frameworks  for  understanding  the  world       • Scripts  are  schemas  about  sequences  of  events     • These  are  useful  abstractions,  but  can  lead  to  stereotyping     How  do  we  Make  Decisions  and  Solve  Problems?   • Reasoning  –  using  information  to  determine  if  a  conclusion  is  valid  or   reasonable   • Decision  making  –  attempting  to  select  the  best  alternative  among  several   options   • Problem  solving  –  finding  a  way  around  an  obstacle  to  reach  a  goal     Deductive/Inductive  Reasoning   • Deductive  reasoning  –  use  logic  to  determine  if  something  is  true  given  certain   premises  (always  true  if  premises  are  correct)   • Inductive  reasoning  –  infer  general  principles  from  specific  (may  not  be  true)     Heuristics   Heuristics  –  mental  shortcuts  for  decision  making  (save  time/ effort,  but  less  accuracy)   • Availability  heuristic  –  judging  how  common  something  is  based  on  how  easy  it   is  to  recall   • Representativeness  heuristic  –  categorizing  based  on  similarity  to  prototypes   • This  can  lead  to  ignoring  the  base -­‐rate  (how  common  something  is)     Framing  Effects     Framing  –  the  effect  of  presentation  on  how  information  is  perceived       Prospect  Theory     • Describes  how  people  make  choices  in  probabilistic  situations       • Evaluation  of  loss/gain  dependent  on  some  reference  point   o Bill  Gates  would  take  a  $1M  coin  flip  bet?     • People  are  loss-­‐adverse  (losing  is  much  worse  than  gaining  is  good)       • Also  applies  to  emotions   Problem  Solving   • Insight  –  sudden  realization  of  solution   • Functional  fixedness  –  the  idea  that  something  has  only  a  particular  function   • Mental  sets  –  previously  successful  strategy  that  may  block  new  thinking   • Some  common  strategies:  subgoals,  working  backwards,  using  an  analogy…   • Paradox  of  choice  –  having  more  options  makes  people  less  happy  (more  effort   spent  in  choosing)       Intelligence  is  Accessed  with  Psychometric   • Achievement:  assess  current  levels  of  skill  and  knowledge   • Aptitude  tests  examine  whether  people  will  be  good  at  various  tasks  in  the   future   • IQ  –  measured  using  Stanford -­‐Binet  test  (children)  or  WAIS -­‐IV  (adults).   Mean=100,  SD=15   • General  int elligence  (g)  –  underlying  factor  contributing  to  performance  on  all   intellectual  tasks   • Fluid  intelligence  –  used  to  reason/think  quickly  and  analytically   • Crystallized  intelligence  –  knowledge  acquired  through  experience   • Multiple  intelligences  –  idea  that  intelligence  in  different  fields  are  distinct   • Emotional  intelligence  –  measures  ability  to  perceive,  understand  and  manage   emotions  to  guide  thoughts/actions     Chapter  12     Attitudes   • Attitudes  –  how  we  feel  about  things   o Shaped  by  experience,  socialization  (what  does  soc iety  think?)   o Mere  exposure  effect  –  just  familiarity  will  make  us  like  something  more!   • Explicit  attitudes  –  we  are  willing  to  say  these   • Implicit  attitudes  –  we  are  unwilling  to  say  these     Cognitive  Dissonance   • Leon  Festinger  proposes  that  when  there  is  a  co ntradiction  between  our  attitude   and  a  situation,  our  attitudes  change.   • People  did  a  boring  task,  then  paid  either  $1  or  $20  to  tell  the  next  person  it  is   interesting   • People  paid  $1  reported  the  task  as  being  more  enjoyable   –their  attitude  changed   to  justify  their  effort  on  the  task     Attributions   • Attributions  –  our  explanations  for  events   o Personal  –  think  events  are  due  to  internal  characteristics  (e.g.  “I  aced   that  midterm  because  I  studied  hard  and  am  awesome!”)   o Situational  –  think  events  due  to  externa l  factors  (e.g.  “I  failed  that   midterm  because  the  prof  put  in  tons  of  trick  questions”)   • Self-­‐serving  bias  –  non-­‐depressed  people  make  personal  attributions  when   successful,  and  situational  ones  when  not  successful   • Fundamental  attribution  error  –  tendency  to  overemphasize  personal   attributions  for  other  people’s  events.  Less  strong  in  eastern  cultures     Stereotypes  &  Groups   • Stereotypes  –  heuristics  for  predicting  other  people’s  behavior  based  on  their   group  membership   o Like  other  heuristics,  can  be  useful  but  not  necessarily  true   o Self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy  –  our  stereotype  influences  our  behavior  to   make  it  real  –  ex.  Teacher  expectations  influence  students’  results   o Stereotype  threat  –  people  who  have  negative  stereotypes  about   themselves  do  worse   • Groups  we  belong  to  are  ingroups;  others  are  outroups   o We  view  ingroup  members  more  positively  and  are  more  willing  to  help   them   o By  contrast,  we  tend  to  view  outgroup  members  as  being  less  unique   (outgroup  homogeneity  effect)   • Sherif  showed  that  creating  groups  is  easy:  j ust  separate  people.  To  break  down   barriers  between  groups,  co -­‐operation  helps     What  Happens  in  Groups?   • Social  facilitation  –  we  do  better  on  simple  tasks  when  others  are  present  (due   to  competition),  but  not  on  complex  tasks   • Social  loafing  –  1)  reduced  performance  when  individual  performance  cannot  be   differentiated.  2)  the  tendency  for  people  to  work  less  hard  in  a  group  than  when   working  alone   • Bystander  intervention  effect   –  when  there  are  lots  of  people  around  we  are   less  likely  to  help.  
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